生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (7): 791-801.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015328

所属专题: 红树林专题 全球气候变化下的海洋生物多样性专辑

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福建洛阳江口红树林湿地大型底栖动物多样性及季节变化

林俊辉, 何雪宝, 王建军*(), 林和山, 黄雅琴, 刘坤, 牟剑锋, 张舒怡, 江锦祥   

  1. 国家海洋局第三海洋研究所, 福建厦门 361005
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-23 接受日期:2016-03-08 出版日期:2016-07-20 发布日期:2016-08-04
  • 通讯作者: 王建军
  • 基金资助:
    海洋公益性行业科研专项经费(201305030-4和201505004)、国家海洋局第三海洋研究所基本科研业务费专项基金(海三科2012012)、国家海洋局海洋生态环境科学与工程重点实验室开放基金(MESE-2015-04)

Macrobenthic diversity and seasonal changes in the mangrove swamp of Luoyangjiang Estuary, Fujian Province

Junhui Lin, Xuebao He, Jianjun Wang*(), Heshan Lin, Yaqin Huang, Kun Liu, Jianfeng Mou, Shuyi Zhang, Jinxiang Jiang   

  1. Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian 361005
  • Received:2015-11-23 Accepted:2016-03-08 Online:2016-07-20 Published:2016-08-04
  • Contact: Wang Jianjun

摘要:

基于2013-2014年福建洛阳江口红树林湿地的周年调查资料, 研究了该湿地大型底栖动物的物种多样性现状、季节变化以及红树林恢复对底栖动物群落的影响。本次调查共鉴定大型底栖动物7门78种, 环节动物和节肢动物种类最为丰富, 节肢动物对总生物量贡献最大, 短拟沼螺(Assiminea brevicula)为本区第一优势种。林区底栖动物的密度和生物量明显低于光滩, 部分优势种仅在林区出现, 此外, 林区群落与光滩有显著差异。本区底栖动物的密度高值出现在冬、春季, 生物量高值出现在春、夏季, 群落结构季节变化明显。本区底栖动物种类组成特点反映出洛阳江口红树林处在年轻期, 群落的季节变化可能跟优势种的繁殖特点有关。研究结果也表明红树林植被会影响底栖动物群落结构, 林区群落已然不同于光滩, 与2009年调查结果相比, 林区底栖动物密度虽明显下降, 但褶痕拟相手蟹(Parasesarma plicata)数量增加, 是优势种之一。洛阳江口红树林和光滩支撑着不同的生物组成, 因此, 红树林恢复应当保持栖息地的多样性/异质性。

关键词: 大型底栖动物, 种类多样性, 季节变化, 红树林湿地, 红树林恢复, 多元分析, 洛阳江口

Abstract:

Based on a year round survey conducted in the mangrove swamp of Luoyangjiang Estuary in Fujian from August 2013 to April 2014, macrobenthic diversity, seasonal changes, and the impact of mangrove rehabilitation on the macrobenthic community were analyzed. We recorded a total of 78 species from 7 phyla in the study area and the community was dominated by annelids and arthropods. The gastropod, Assiminea brevicula (Assimineidae), was the most dominant species and was more abundant in mangrove forests than in mudflats. ANOSIM analysis showed that faunal communities were significantly different between mangrove forests and mudflats, with the former characterized by much lower macrobenthic density and biomass. Moreover, some of dominant species, such as Parasesarma plicata and Phascolosoma arcuatum, were only found in mangrove forests. Higher value of macrobenthic density was found in winter and spring, while mean biomass was higher in spring and summer. Significant differences in macrobenthic communites were observed among seasons except between winter and spring. The present study demostrated that, species composition of the mangrove macrobenthos indicated characteristics of a young mangrove plantation and seasonal changes in macrobenthic communities might be due to different breeding seasons of the dominant species. Mangrove vegetation had a noticeable impact on macrobenthic communities, as evidenced by significant difference in macrobenthic communites between the two habitats. Density of macrobenthos in mangrove forests was much lower than that found in 2009, but the sesarminid crab Parasesarma plicata became much abundant. Since mangrove forests and mudflats support different species composition of macrobenthos, planning is needed in mangrove rehabilitation for the protection of habitat diversity and heterogeneity.

Key words: macrobenthos, species diversity, seasonal changes, mangrove swamp, mangrove rehabilitation, multivariate analysis, Luoyangjiang Estuary