生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (7): 820-830.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015264

所属专题: 全球气候变化下的海洋生物多样性专辑

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胶州湾潮下带大型底栖动物群落的季节变化

杨梅1, 李新正1,,A;*(), 徐勇1,2, 王洪法1, 张宝琳1   

  1. 1 .中国科学院海洋研究所海洋生物分类与系统演化实验室, 山东青岛 266071
    2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2015-09-30 接受日期:2016-01-04 出版日期:2016-07-20 发布日期:2016-08-04
  • 通讯作者: 李新正
  • 基金资助:
    中科院先导科技专项(A)“黑潮及其变异对中国近海生态系统的影响”(XDA11020303)和海洋公益性行业科研专项项目(201505004-1)

Seasonal variations in macrobenthic communities in the subtidal zones of Jiaozhou Bay

Mei Yang1, Xinzheng Li1,*(), Yong Xu1,2, Hongfa Wang1, Baolin Zhang1   

  1. 1 Department of Marine Organism Taxonomy and Phylogeny, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2015-09-30 Accepted:2016-01-04 Online:2016-07-20 Published:2016-08-04
  • Contact: Li Xinzheng

摘要:

胶州湾位于山东半岛南岸, 是黄海深入内陆的半封闭天然海湾, 底栖动物种类丰富。本文根据2014年2、5、8和11月4个航次(冬、春、夏、秋)的调查资料, 采用优势度指数, 物种多样性指数、丰富度指数、均匀度指数, Bray-Curtis相似性聚类和非参数多维标度排序(NMDS)方法, 分析了胶州湾大型底栖动物群落的季节变化特点。各航次共采集大型底栖动物199种, 其中多毛类79种, 甲壳动物47种, 软体动物40种, 棘皮动物17种, 其他类群16种。各季度优势种有变化亦有重叠, 以多毛类为主。2014年度胶州湾大型底栖动物的年平均丰度为209.85 ind./m2, 最高丰度出现在秋季, 最低出现在春季; 年平均生物量为79.22 g/m2, 最高生物量出现在夏季, 最低出现在春季。物种多样性指数(H')变化范围为2.16-2.86, 物种丰富度指数(D)变化范围为2.79-3.72, 物种均匀度指数(J)变化范围为0.58-0.82。聚类分析结果显示, 4个航次的群落相似性系数均较低, 分布格局存在季节性变化。近年来, 伴随海岸带开发及人类活动的持续影响, 胶州湾底栖生境的稳定性受到一定的威胁, 建议继续开展长期连续的监测, 探索有效的综合治理措施, 使胶州湾海洋生态系统能够持续健康的发展。

关键词: 胶州湾, 大型底栖动物, 生物多样性, 群落结构

Abstract:

Jiaozhou Bay is a semi-enclosed bay at the southern shore of Shandong Peninsula and has abundant macrobenthic species. In present study, the seasonal variation of the macrobenthic community in this bay was analyzed based on data collected from four cruises in February (winter), May (spring), August (summer) and November (autumn) of 2014. A total of 199 macrobenthic species were identified, of which, 79 species were Polychaeta, 47 were Crustacea, 40 were Mollusca, 17 were Echinodermata, and the remaining 16 species belong to other animal groups. The composition of dominant species seasonally varied, however, most of them were species belong to Polychaeta. The average abundance of the macrobenthos from the four cruises was 209.85 ind./m2, with the highest abundance found in the autumn cruise and the lowest in the spring cruise. The average biomass from the four cruises was 79.22 g/m2, with the highest biomass found during the summer cruise and the lowest found during the spring cruise. The Shannon-Wiener index (H') of the macrobenthic community varied from 2.16 to 2.86, the species richness index (D) varied from 2.79 to 3.72 and the species evenness index (J) varied from 0.58 to 0.82. The Bray-Curtis similarity cluster analysis and NMDS ordination analyses indicated that the similarity among macrobenthic community groups was low and the distribution pattern of microbenthic animal groups showed seasonal characteristics. In recent years, with the rapid economic development of coastal zones and the continuous impact of human activities, the stability of the benthonic community in Jiaozhou Bay is threatened, therefore, long-term monitoring is recommended and effective comprehensive management measures need to be explored to result in the healthy and sustainable development of the marine ecosystem in Jiaozhou Bay.

Key words: Jiaozhou Bay, benthic macrofauna, biodiversity, community structure