生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (7): 767-780.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015249

所属专题: 全球气候变化下的海洋生物多样性专辑

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杭州湾内外海域秋季浮游动物群落的比较

张冬融1,2, 徐兆礼1,,A;*(), 徐佳奕1, 董开兴1,3   

  1. 1 .中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所农业部海洋与河口渔业重点开放实验室, 上海 200090
    2.国家海洋局第二海洋研究所工程海洋学重点实验室, 杭州 310012
    3.厦门大学海洋与地球学院, 福建厦门 361102
  • 收稿日期:2015-09-15 接受日期:2016-03-11 出版日期:2016-07-20 发布日期:2016-08-04
  • 通讯作者: 徐兆礼
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41176131)和海洋公益性行业科研专项经费项目(201305027)

Comparison of zooplankton communities inside and outside the Hangzhou Bay in autumn

Dongrong Zhang1,2, Zhaoli Xu1,*(), Jiayi Xu1, Kaixing Dong1,3   

  1. 1 Key and Open Laboratory of Marine and Estuary Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture of China, East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai 200090
    2 Key Laboratory of Engineering Oceanography, Second Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, People’s Republic of China, Hangzhou 310012
    3 College of Ocean & Earth Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361102
  • Received:2015-09-15 Accepted:2016-03-11 Online:2016-07-20 Published:2016-08-04
  • Contact: Xu Zhaoli

摘要:

本文比较了杭州湾湾外海域(122.10°-122.58° E, 30.54°-30.93° N)和湾内不同海域(北岸东侧: 121.67°- 121.87° E, 30.68°-30.83° N; 南岸东侧: 121.60°-121.85° E, 29.95°-30.24° N; 北岸西侧: 121.31°-121.56° E, 30.58°- 30.77° N)秋季浮游动物的群落组成、累积优势度曲线以及多样性指数(H')等群落结构特征, 并进行了差异性分析。结果表明: 湾外海域的群落组成与湾内海域的3个群落之间均有较大的差异。湾外海域的群落I是以中华假磷虾(Pseudeuphausia sinica)等近海种、背针胸刺水蚤(Centropages dorsispinatus)等沿岸低盐种为主, 其次是外海种。湾内南岸东侧海域的群落II主要以左突唇角水蚤(Labidocera sinilobata)等沿岸低盐种为主, 近海种次之。湾内北岸东侧海域的群落III是以真刺唇角水蚤(Labidocera euchaeta)等沿岸低盐种、虫肢歪水蚤(Tortanus vermiculus)等河口半咸水种组成的混合群落。湾内北岸西侧海域群落IV是以虫肢歪水蚤为代表的河口半咸水种为主的群落。总的说来, 这一水域向西和向北方向出现更低盐度适应性的群落。从累积优势度曲线来看, 湾外海域群落I与湾内北岸东侧群落III的累积优势度上升趋势均相对平缓, 但群落III的初始累积优势度略高于群落I; 而与群落I相比, 湾内南岸东侧的群落II与北岸西侧的群落IV的初始累积优势度均很高。湾外海域群落I的初始累积优势度较低, 显示出群落I的优势种较多, 而单一优势种优势度低于湾内3个群落。方差分析结果表明: 湾外海域的浮游动物多样性指数与湾内3个海域均有极显著差异(P < 0.01), 而湾内各海域之间均无显著性差异(P > 0.05)。说明湾外浮游动物群落的多样性高于湾内海域。湾内外海域浮游动物群落特征之间有较大差异, 其主要原因是影响各自群落的主导水团明显不同。

关键词: 杭州湾, 群落, 累积优势度, 浮游动物, 多样性

Abstract

We analyzed and compared the differences in community composition, K-dominance curves and diversity index (H') of zooplankton community structure characteristics inside and outside the Hangzhou Bay in autumn (outside the bay: 122.10°-122.58° E, 30.54°-30.93° N; inside the bay: the east area of north: 121.67°-121.87° E, 30.68°-30.83° N; the east area of south: 121.60°-121.85° E, 29.95°-30.24° N; the west area of north: 121.31°-121.56° E, 30.58°-30.77° N). Results indicated that there were large differences between the community composition of zooplankton outside the bay and those in the three areas inside the bay. The area outside the bay (community I) was composed of nearshore species such as Pseudeuphausia sinica and nearshore low-salinity species such as Centropages dorsispinatus, followed by offshore species. Community II (the eastern area of south Hangzhou Bay) was composed of nearshore low-salinity species such as Labidocera sinilobata, followed by nearshore species. Community III (the eastern area of north Hangzhou Bay) was mixed with nearshore low-salinity species such as Labidocera euchaeta and estuarine brackish-water species such as Tortanus vermiculus. Community IV (the western area of north Hangzhou Bay) was characterized by the dominant species, Tortanus vermiculus of estuarine brackish-water species that had the highest proportion, which was different from the community I. Generally, the community with lower salinity adaptability appeared in the western and northern areas. According to K-dominance curves, the dominance curves of community I and community III were quite gentle. In addition, the initial cumulative dominance of community III was higher than that of community I. Compared with community I, the initial cumulative dominance of community II and community IV were far higher than that of community I. The initial cumulative dominance of community I (outside the bay) was particularly low, which indicated that there were many types of dominant species in community I, and the dominance of single dominant species was lower than those communities inside the bay. Results of variance analysis indicated that there were highly significant differences between the diversity index of zooplankton outside the bay and those in the other three waters inside the bay (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, there were no significant differences between the three communities inside the bay (P > 0.05). This showed that the diversity index of zooplankton outside the bay was higher than those of the communities inside the bay. The influence of different water masses resulted in zooplankton community differences in the inner and outer waters of the bay.

Key words: Hangzhou Bay, community, cumulative dominance, zooplankton, diversity