生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (1): 12-.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015190

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中国入侵克隆植物入侵性、克隆方式及地理起源

王宁*(), 李卫芳, 周兵, 闫小红   

  1. 井冈山大学生命科学学院, 江西吉安 343009
  • 出版日期:2016-01-20 发布日期:2016-06-12
  • 通讯作者: 王宁

Invasiveness, clonal form and geographical origin of invasive clonal plant species in China

Ning Wang*(), Weifang Li, Bing Zhou, Xiaohong Yan   

  1. School of Life Sciences, Jinggangshan University, Ji’an, Jiangxi 343009
  • Online:2016-01-20 Published:2016-06-12
  • Contact: Wang Ning

摘要:

通过查阅和整理相关文献资料, 分析了中国入侵克隆植物的入侵性、克隆方式及地理起源等。目前, 在中国的515种入侵植物中, 克隆植物至少有196种, 占总数的38.1%。这些入侵克隆植物隶属46科, 其中禾本科、菊科和豆科植物占多数, 以人为有意引入为主。在入侵危害等级1-5中, 属于第5等级(有待观察类)的克隆植物占多数。卡方分析表明, 中国入侵植物的危害等级与其是否具有克隆性关系不显著, 但显著依赖于其是否具有根状茎。多年生和1-2年生草本植物构成中国入侵克隆植物的主体, 分蘖型、匍匐茎型和根茎型等繁殖方式在草本类入侵植物中较为常见。多数入侵克隆植物地理起源上来自美洲地区。这些结果表明, 在我国今后引种活动中需要格外警惕根状茎型克隆植物以及美洲起源的克隆植物。此外, 由于现有文献资料有待完善, 入侵克隆植物的数量和比例可能被低估。因此, 在今后工作中应加强入侵植物的野外生长观测, 进而确切判定中国入侵克隆植物的数量和比例。

关键词: 入侵植物, 克隆性, 克隆繁殖, 生长型, 地理起源

Abstract:

The invasiveness, clonal form and geographical origin of invasive clonal plant species in China were analyzed based on some literature reviews. Of the 515 invasive plant species in China, at least 196 (38.1%) were clonal plant species. These invasive clonal plant species belong to 46 families, and most of them are from Gramineae, Asteraceae and Leguminosae. The majority of the invasive clonal plant species were introduced intentionally by human activity. In the 1-5 invasiveness ranks, most invasive clonal plant species belong to the rank 5 (i.e. species requiring further observation). Chi-square tests showed that species invasiveness ranks did not significantly depend on the presence/absence of clonality, but that they significantly depended on the presence/absence of rhizomes. Perennial and annual herbs accounted for the majority of the 196 invasive clonal plant species. Many invasive clonal herbs reproduce asexually by tillers, stolons or rhizomes. The primary geographical origin of these invasive clonal plant species was America. The results suggest that in future attention should be paid when rhizomatous clonal plant species or clonal plant species from America are introduced. However, our methods may have underestimated the number and proportion of invasive clonal plant species because of limited information about modes of reproduction in the literature. Thus, fieldwork should be conducted to check the clonality of each species to accurately analyze the number and proportion of invasive clonal plant species in China in future.

Key words: invasive plant species, clonality, clonal reproduction, growth form, geographical origin