生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (1): 0-0.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020212

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土壤养分对菊科一年生入侵种和本地种繁殖性状的影响

王亚,王玮倩,王钦克,李晓霞,刘延,黄乔乔*   

  1. 中国热带农业科学院环境与植物保护研究所
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-22 修回日期:2020-07-06 出版日期:2021-01-20 发布日期:2020-09-01
  • 通讯作者: 黄乔乔

Effect of soil nutrients on reproductive traits of invasive and native annual Asteraceae plants

Ya Wang,Weiqian Wang,Qinke Wang,Xiaoxia Li,Yan Liu,Qiaoqiao Huang*   

  1. Environment and Plant Protection Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences
  • Received:2020-05-22 Revised:2020-07-06 Online:2021-01-20 Published:2020-09-01
  • Contact: Qiaoqiao Huang

摘要: 入侵植物繁殖性状的研究可为揭示植物入侵机制提供重要的科学依据。为研究土壤养分对入侵植物和本地植物繁殖性状的影响, 并进一步研究养分添加是否更能促进入侵植物的繁殖能力, 设置了低、高两个养分水平, 通过同质园实验比较了不同土壤养分对菊科一年生入侵种(假臭草Praxelis clematidea、胜红蓟Ageratum conyzoides、三叶鬼针草Bidens pilosa)和本地种(夜香牛Vernonia cinerea、一点红Emilia sonchifolia、墨旱莲Eclipta prostrata)繁殖性状的影响。研究结果显示, 养分添加提高了6种菊科植物的开花高度、株高、地上生物量、单粒种子重量、总花序数、每花序种子数、总种子数量、总种子重量, 并使开花时间提前、花期长度延长。养分添加对入侵种的开花高度和单粒种子重量的提高要比对本地种提高的更为显著。养分添加更能促进部分入侵植物(假臭草、胜红蓟)相对于部分本地植物(夜香牛、墨旱莲)的繁殖能力。三叶鬼针草和一点红的总种子数量和总种子重量在两种土壤养分下均较小。本地种墨旱莲的总种子数量在低养分条件下高于3个入侵种, 总种子重量高于3个入侵种。这些结果表明, 高土壤养分仅能促进部分入侵植物相对于部分本地植物的繁殖能力。

关键词: 繁殖能力, 繁殖性状, 入侵植物, 本地植物, 土壤养分

Abstract: Understanding the reproductive strategy and soil nutrient efficiency of plants is fundamental to identify the mechanisms of plant invasion and success. In order to understand how soil nutrient conditions influence reproductive capacity in native and invasive plants, and specifically whether nutrient addition increases the reproductive capacity more for the invasive plants, we conducted a common garden experiment. In low and high soil nutrient conditions we measured and compared the reproductive traits of annual Asteraceae plants including the invasive species (Praxelis clematidea, Ageratum conyzoides, Bidens pilosa) and native species (Vernonia cinerea, Emilia sonchifolia, Eclipta prostrata). We found that nutrient addition increased the height at flowering, plant height, aboveground biomass, single seed weight, total inflorescence number, seed number per inflorescence, total seed number and total seed weight of all Asteraceae plants, and also advanced the flowering time and extended the flowering period length. However, nutrient addition increased the flowering height and single seed weight of invasive species more than those of native species, and in some invasive plants (P. clematidea and A. conyzoides) it increased the reproductive capacity compared to some native plants (V. cinerea and E. prostrata). The total seed number and total seed weight of B. pilosa and E. sonchifolia were small under both low and high soil nutrient conditions. The total seed number of the native E. prostrata was higher than that of the three invasive plants under low soil nutrient conditions, and its total seed weight was higher than that of the three invasive plants. These results indicate that high soil nutrients promote the reproductive capacity of some but not all invasive plants compared with native plants.

Key words: reproductive capacity, reproductive traits, invasive plant, native plant, soil nutrient