生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (2): 174-182.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2014243

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鼎湖山南亚热带常绿阔叶林不同成熟度群落特征的比较

练琚愉1, 陈灿1,2, 黄忠良1,*(), 曹洪麟1, 叶万辉1   

  1. 1.中国科学院退化生态系统植被恢复与管理重点实验室, 中国科学院华南植物园, 广州 510650
    2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2014-11-21 接受日期:2015-03-18 出版日期:2015-03-20 发布日期:2015-04-09
  • 通讯作者: 黄忠良
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41371078, 31100312)和中国森林生物多样性监测网络建设项目

Community composition and stand age in a subtropical forest, southern China

Juyu Lian1, Can Chen1,2, Zhongliang Huang1,*(), Honglin Cao1, Wanhui Ye1   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2014-11-21 Accepted:2015-03-18 Online:2015-03-20 Published:2015-04-09
  • Contact: Huang Zhongliang

摘要:

研究不同成熟度群落物种的共存状态, 了解群落演替过程中结构的动态变化, 对揭示森林不同发育时期的群落构建机制具有重要意义。本研究基于鼎湖山南亚热带常绿阔叶林20 ha固定监测样地(以下简称鼎湖山大样地) 2010年植被调查的数据, 根据径级与林龄将鼎湖山大样地划分为成熟林和过熟林两个斑块, 对其群落物种组成、区系特征及径级结构进行了初步的比较。研究发现: (1)成熟林和过熟林种类组成的群落相似性系数高、物种多样性指数相近, 以及锥栗(Castanopsis chinensis)重要值相似, 但物种数、密度、总胸高断面积、物种重要值等有所不同; (2)热带区系成分在两个斑块均占优势, 但以过熟林的比例较高; (3)两个斑块虽然所有活立木径级结构分布均呈倒“J”型, 但在同径级个体群重要值比较中, 成熟林中径级个体群重要值较高, 而过熟林则是大径级个体群重要值较高。由此可见, 鼎湖山大样地的成熟林与过熟林虽属于同一类群落的演替顶极阶段, 但群落结构上却存在差异, 推测在林窗作用下不同发育时期的群落存在不同的构建过程。

关键词: 鼎湖山大样地, 物种组成, 群落结构, 群落构建, 林窗

Abstract:

Studying species coexistence and successional dynamics of varying stand ages is important to understanding the mechanisms of community assembly. In this study, we divided a 20 ha subtropical forest plot in southern China into two groups, mature and old (over-mature), according to tree size and historical records. Species compositions, floristic characteristics and tree size distribution between the groups were compared. Results showed that species composition of the two groups were similar with comparable diversity indices but different species richness, individual densities, total basal area and importance value (IV) of species. As for the floristic composition, there were about 90% genera of tropical species in both groups, but the genera had a higher proportion in the old than in the mature forest. Both groups had “J” shaped tree size distributions but the mature forest had higher IV in the middle size class while the old forest was highest in large size class. In conclusion, both the mature and old forests were in climax stages but had different community structures, which suggests that there were different assembly processes during development stages in the subtropical forest community.

Key words: Dinghushan plot, species composition, community structure, community assembly, forest gap