生物多样性 ›› 2006, Vol. 14 ›› Issue (5): 372-381.DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060013

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市化对城市麻雀栖息地利用的影响:以北京市为例

张淑萍1, 2,郑光美1*,徐基良3   

  1. 1 (北京师范大学生命科学学院, 北京 100875)
    2 (中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081)
    3 (北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083)
  • 收稿日期:2006-01-16 修回日期:2006-07-15 出版日期:2006-09-20 发布日期:2006-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 郑光美

Habitat use of urban tree sparrows in the process of urbanization: Beijing as a case study

Shuping Zhang1,2, Guangmei Zheng1*, Jiliang Xu3   

  1. 1 College of Life Sciences , Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
    2 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Central University for Nationalities, Beijing 100081
    3 College of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
  • Received:2006-01-16 Revised:2006-07-15 Online:2006-09-20 Published:2006-09-20
  • Contact: Guangmei Zheng

摘要: 本文以北京市为例研究了城市化水平不同的8个区域中麻雀(Passer montanus的数量分布现状以及影响麻雀分布的栖息地因子。结果表明, 越冬期和繁殖期的麻雀数量均与城市化程度呈显著的负相关关系; 城市化程度高的城市中心商业区、高层居民区和城市主干道中的麻雀数量均很少; 城市化程度较低的城乡结合区、公园、城市的平房区及古建筑区域中麻雀数量均较多; 高校校园和低层楼房居民区, 虽然城市化程度相对较高, 但由于植被较丰富, 麻雀数量也较多。平房面积、针叶树数量、阔叶树数量、空调数量、高层楼房的面积、硬化地面的面积、人流量及车流量是影响麻雀栖息地利用的重要因素。其中平房面积、针叶树、阔叶树、空调的数量增加, 可为麻雀提供栖息条件而有利于麻雀的利用; 硬化地面的面积、高层楼房的面积、人流量及车流量的增加, 由于减少了杂草等麻雀的食物来源并增加了干扰, 不利于麻雀的利用。结果表明, 虽然麻雀是一个适应人类生活环境的物种, 但在快速的城市化变迁中,它已表现出对高度城市化环境的不适应。在城市的规划与建设中, 应考虑到为以麻雀为代表的城市鸟类提供生存必要的植被和繁殖场所, 构建人鸟和谐共存的生态城市。

关键词: 乌梁素海, 浮游细菌, 群落结构, RFLP, 系统发育分析

AbstractThe tree sparrow (Passer montanus) is a dominant species of urban bird communities. With the development of urbanization, the habitats and food resources of tree sparrows are likely to decrease. Can the urban tree sparrow adapt to changes in the urban environment? To answer this question, we studied the habitat use of tree sparrows in eight types of urban areas in Beijing. The results showed that the number of both breeding and wintering tree sparrows decreases with increasing urbanization. The habitat use of tree sparrows, analyzed by discriminant analysis, was positively correlated with the number of brick bungalows, coniferous and broad-leaved trees, and air conditioners, whereas it was negatively correlated with the area of high buildings and hardened roads, and people and automobile flux. This indicates that the tree sparrow is not adaptable to rapid urbanization, although in general it is an adaptable species. Urban planning should take into consideration birds such as tree sparrows.

Key words: Wuliangsuhai Lake, planktonic bacteria, community composition, RFLP, phylogenetic analysis