Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (6): 648-657.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018296

• Original Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

Assessment of macrobenthos biodiversity and potential human-induced stressors in the Ganjiang River system

Xing Yuan1, 4, Wu Xiaoping2, Ouyang Shan2, Zhang Junqian1, Xu Jing3, Yin Senlu3, Xie Zhicai1, *()   

  1. 1 Center for Aquatic Biodiversity and Resource Conservation, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072
    2 School of Life Sciences and Food Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330000
    3 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    4 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2018-11-05 Accepted:2019-04-24 Online:2019-05-15
  • Xie Zhicai E-mail:zhcxie@ihb.ac.cn

The Ganjiang River is the seventh-largest first-level tributary of the Yangtze River, and knowledge is limited about the river’s macrobenthos assemblages. Here, we carried out a comprehensive assessment of macrobenthos species diversity in the river system, and then identified the potential drivers of the observed community patterns based on combined datasets of available historical records and field investigations from 2016-2017. A total of 330 species have been recorded to date, including 138 from the historical record and an additional 267 from the 2016-2017 investigations. In particular, this river network harbors a high array of mollusk diversity, with 17 gastropods and 31 bivalves endemic to China while 32 molluscs endemic to China were recorded in the 2016-2017 investigations. The dominant species in the Ganjiang River can tolerate pollutants. The density, biomass and richness index of branches of midstream were all higher than those of main stream, branches of the upstream and branches of the downstream. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that five environmental factors (substrate, sand-excavating, altitude, turbidity, velocity) and four spatial factors (PCNM1, PCNM11, PCNM12, PCNM15) were the key drivers structuring macrobenthos community variation. The variation partitioning analysis indicated that the environmental factors had a stronger effect on macrobenthos communities than the spatial factors. This study provides useful information to enhance the conservation of benthic biodiversity in the Ganjiang River.

Key words: Ganjiang River, macrobenthos, community structure, biodiversity, canonical correspondence analysis

Fig. 1

Distribution of sampling sites for macrobenthos in Ganjiang River system"

Table 1

Mean value and standard deviation of local environmental variables in Ganjiang River system"

干流
Main stream
上游支流
Branches of the upstream
中游支流
Branches of the midstream
下游支流
Branches of the downstream
卡方检验
Chi-square test (χ2)
P
水温 Water temperature (℃) 23.0 ± 6.4 22.8 ± 5.4 20.3 ± 6.4 22.3 ± 7.1 6.00 0.111
电导率 Conductivity (μs/cm) 116.7 ± 44.7 92.4 ± 49.4 98.5 ± 69.8 249.2 ± 33.3 45.34 <0.001*
河宽 Channel width (m) 608.40 ± 437.20 114.12 ± 65.66 82.71 ± 52.51 92.58 ± 28.02 61.25 <0.001*
流速 Current velocity (m/s) 0.28 ± 0.25 0.35 ± 0.31 0.45 ± 0.36 0.29 ± 0.38 6.71 0.082
海拔 Altitude (m) 75.76 ± 66.37 188.87 ± 36.57 303.00 ± 251.12 53.00 ± 21.86 83.48 <0.001*
基质 Substrate 8.00 ± 4.73 10.00 ± 5.41 12.57 ± 5.44 9.67 ± 6.51 12.12 0.007*
浊度 Turbidity (NTU) 15.18 ± 8.76 20.06 ± 32.33 10.14 ± 6.94 9.47 ± 5.62 8.69 0.034*
矿化度 Mineralization (mg/L) 75.61 ± 28.68 59.03 ± 33.34 51.55 ± 33.51 161.33 ± 21.82 50.56 <0.001*
溶氧 Dissolved oxygen (mg/L) 9.03 ± 1.45 9.10 ± 1.26 9.49 ± 1.00 8.68 ± 1.41 2.63 0.452
pH 6.34 ± 0.84 6.20 ± 1.07 6.26 ± 0.77 6.31 ± 0.90 0.37 0.946
总氮 Total nitrogen (mg/L) 1.71 ± 0.88 1.33 ± 1.03 1.47 ± 0.98 2.34 ± 1.35 17.54 0.001*
硝态氮 Nitrate (mg/L) 1.25 ± 0.51 0.90 ± 0.86 0.67 ± 0.24 1.18 ± 0.52 40.14 <0.001*
氨氮 Ammonia nitrogen (mg/L) 0.10 ± 0.15 0.08 ± 0.13 0.06 ± 0.08 0.07 ± 0.08 1.81 0.613
亚硝态氮 Nitrites (mg/L) 0.05 ± 0.15 0.01 ± 0.01 0.04 ± 0.14 0.07 ± 0.08 28.96 <0.001*
总磷 Total phosphorus (mg/L) 0.23 ± 0.25 0.18 ± 0.24 0.18 ± 0.21 0.18 ± 0.18 5.81 0.121
正磷酸盐 Phosphate (mg/L) 0.06 ± 0.06 0.05 ± 0.07 0.05 ± 0.03 0.06 ± 0.03 11.71 0.008*
化学需氧量 (Chemical oxygen demand, COD) (mg/L) 2.86 ± 1.51 2.32 ± 0.69 3.41 ± 3.39 3.16 ± 0.53 12.52 0.006*
硬度 Hardness (mg/L) 44.87 ± 14.92 36.42 ± 16.04 41.71 ± 26.28 106.07 ± 12.88 48.99 <0.001*

Fig. 2

Density (a), biomass (b), richness (c), Shannon-Wiener diversity index (d), Simpson dominance index (e) and Pielou evenness index (f) of macrobenthos communities in different reaches in Ganjiang River system"

Table 2

The density percentage of dominant species in each reaches of Ganjiang River system"

全流域
Ganjiang River
(%)
干流
Main stream
上游支流
Branches of the upstream
中游支流
Branches of the midstream
下游支流
Branches of the downstream
多毛管水蚓 Aulodrilus pluriseta - - - 10.40 -
霍甫水丝蚓 Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri 14.17 18.69 - 20.24 6.32
梯形多足摇蚊 Polypedilum scalaenum - 7.74 - - -
瓦莱直突摇蚊 Orthocladius vaillanti - - - - 10.12
三带环足摇纹 Cricotopus trifascia 5.98 - - - 20.63
狭溪泥甲属一种 Stenelmis sp. 5.31 - 5.45 5.28 8.84
缺纹石蛾属一种 Potamyia sp. - - 13.33 - -
管石蛾科一种 Psychomyiidae sp. - - 5.03 - -
环棱螺属一种 Bellamya sp. - - - - 10.23
方格短沟蜷 Semisulcospira cancellata - - - - 6.13
湖沼股蛤 Limnoperna lacustris - 6.61 - 6.90 -
河蚬 Corbicula fluminea 6.11 8.92 8.35 8.16 -

Table 3

Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) relating macrobenthos communities to environmental and spatial factors"

F P 第1轴 Axis 1 第2轴 Axis 2 第3轴 Axis 3 第4轴 Axis 4
环境因子 Environmental factors
基质 Substrate 2.12 0.001 0.374 0.028 0.006 0.176
挖沙强度 Sand-excavating 1.6 0.001 0.267 -0.322 0.579 0.681
海拔 Altitude 1.52 0.004 0.295 0.283 -0.093 0.597
浊度 Turbidity 1.43 0.011 -0.275 -0.001 -0.150 -0.013
流速 Velocity 1.36 0.046 0.270 -0.802 0.291 -0.696
空间因子 Spatial factors
微尺度 PCNM11 1.67 0.002 -0.237 -0.351 -0.211 0.133
大尺度 PCNM1 1.63 0.001 -0.147 0.384 0.676 -0.480
微尺度 PCNM15 1.48 0.015 0.148 0.256 -0.311 0.306
微尺度 PCNM12 1.37 0.018 0.081 -0.274 0.291 0.004

Fig. 3

Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) ordination plots showing the relationship between macrobenthos communities and significant environmental and spatial factors in the Ganjiang River system"

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