Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (9): 972-987.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018119

• Reviews • Previous Article     Next Article

Status, issues and prospects of belowground biodiversity on the Tibetan alpine grassland

Anrong Liu1, Teng Yang2, Wei Xu1, Zijian Shangguan1, Jinzhou Wang1, Huiying Liu1, Yu Shi2, Haiyan Chu2, Jin-Sheng He1, 3, *()   

  1. 1 Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    2 Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008
    3 State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730020
  • Received:2018-04-16 Accepted:2018-05-25 Online:2019-01-05
  • He Jin-Sheng
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

The diversity and abundance of below-ground microorganisms and animals play an important role in shaping above-ground biodiversity and helps maintain ecosystem function. Yet, we have a limited understanding of belowground biodiversity, e.g. its spatial/temporal patterns, driving factors and responses to global change and human activities. This knowledge gap is particularly acute for the Tibetan alpine grassland that is sensitive to climate change and occupies 60% of the area of the Tibetan Plateau. Here, we first review recent studies that reported the drivers of patterns in five major soil organism groups, including fungi, bacteria, archaea, nematodes and arthropods on Tibetan alpine grassland. We then focus on the responses of soil biodiversity to climate change and human activities. Finally, we highlight some open questions for future research of soil diversity on the Tibetan alpine grassland. Specifically, we recommend that future studies examine (1) The mechanisms underlying distribution patterns of belowground biodiversity; (2) Links between aboveground and belowground biodiversity; (3) Effects of belowground biodiversity on the health and functioning of ecosystems; (4) Manipulative experiments of belowground biodiversity.

Key words: soil microorganisms, soil animals, biodiversity, species richness, climate change, human activities

Fig. 1

The number of papers related to above- and below- ground biodiversity on Tibetan alpine grassland in the last ten years (2008-2017). Data source: Web of Science, CNKI."

Table 1

The driving factors of soil biodiversity and its responses to climate change and human activities on the Tibetan alpine grassland"

Research scale
Influencing factors
真菌 Fungus 细菌 Bacteria 古菌 Archaea 线虫 Nematode 节肢动物 Arthropod
Dominant factors
Plant diversity
(Yang et al, 2017)
- 土壤含水量; 土壤碳氮比
Soil water content; Soil carbon-nitrogen ratio (Shi et al, 2016)
年均降水量; 土壤有机质; 土壤pH; 温度季节变化
Mean annual precipitation; Soil organic carbon content; Soil pH; Temperature seasonality (Zhao et al, 2017)
Plant diversity
(Zhao et al, 2017)
Other factors
年均降水量; 碳氮比; 土壤总磷; 溶解性有机碳
Carbon : nitrogen ratio; Soil total phosphorus; Dissolved organic carbon content
(Yang et al, 2017)
植物根生物量; 土壤有机碳; 土壤氮; 土壤磷; 地上生物量的氮磷含量
Root biomass; Soil organic carbon; Soil nitrogen; Soil phosphorus; Nitrogen and phosphorus in aboveground biomass
(Jing et al, 2015)
土壤可利用氮; 地上生物量
Soil total available nitrogen; Aboveground biomass
(Jing et al, 2015)
Plant diversity
(Zhao et al, 2017)
年均降水量; 土壤有机质; 土壤pH; 温度季节变化
Mean annual precipitation; Soil organic carbon; Soil pH; Temperature seasonality (Zhao et al, 2017)
Vegetation type
高寒草原 > 高寒草甸 Alpine steppe > Alpine meadow (Zhang Y et al, 2016) 高寒草甸 > 高寒草地
Alpine meadow > Alpine steppe (Zhang Y et al, 2016; Zhang et al, 2017)
- - -
草地退化Grassland degradation 增加 Increase
(Li et al, 2016)
增加 Increase
(Li et al, 2016)
- - 减少 Decrease (吴鹏飞和杨大星, 2011; 吴鹏飞等, 2013; Wu et al, 2015; 高艳美和吴鹏飞, 2016; 龙伟等, 2017)
Short-term warming
不显著 Not significant (Xiong et al, 2014; Zhang K et al, 2016; Zhang Y et al, 2016) 不显著 Not significant (Zhang K et al, 2016; Zhang Y et al, 2016) - - -
不显著 Not significant
(Xiong et al, 2014; Zhang Y et al, 2016)
不显著 Not significant
(Zhang K et al, 2016; Li et al, 2017)
增加 Increase
(Li et al, 2017)
- -
Nutrient input
氮肥不显著, 磷肥降低 Nitrogen not significant; Phosphorus decrease (He et al, 2016) - - 增加 Increase
(王静等, 2015;
Hu et al, 2017
放牧 Graze 不显著 Not significant
(Zhang Y et al, 2016)
不显著 Not significant
(Zhang Y et al, 2016)
- 增加 Increase
(Hu et al, 2015;
武崎等, 2016
围封 Enclosed - 不显著 Not significant
(高凤等, 2017)
- 增加 Increase (薛会英等, 2016, 2017) -

Fig. 2

Climate change and human activities affect ecosystem function and health through regulating biodiversity. (1) Distribution pattern and underlying mechanism of belowground biodiversity; (2) The linkage between aboveground and belowground biodiversity; (3) Effect of belowground biodiversity on the ecosystem functions and health; (4) Manipulative experiments of belowground biodiversity."

Fig. 3

The belowground biodiversity of different grassland types in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Inner Mongolia Plateau (mean ± SE)"

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