Biodiversity Science ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (3): 320-328.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13137

Special Issue: Marine Biodiversity Special Feature

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Distribution and community characteristics of planktonic copepods in the northwest coastal waters off Hainan Island

Rouxin Sun, Yanguo Wang, Guangshan Lian, Mao Lin*()   

  1. Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian 361005
  • Received:2013-06-08 Accepted:2014-04-24 Online:2014-06-04
  • Lin Mao E-mail:lm3011@126.com

We analyzed the structure, distribution, and seasonal changes of planktonic copepod communities, as well as their relationships with environmental factors using data collected from 21 stations in the northwest coastal waters off Hainan Island between November 2008 and July 2009. A total of 44 species of planktonic copepods was identified, with 25, 23, 22, and 23 species found in autumn (November), winter (January), spring (April) and summer (July), respectively. The dominant species were mainly warm water species, such as Canthocalanus pauper, Subeucalanus subcrassus, Temora turbinate, Acartia spinicauda, Calanopia elliptica and Euchaeta concinna, etc. There were significant changes in copepod abundance among seasons; total copepod abundance was highest in winter with 409 ind./m3, followed by autumn with 144 ind./m3, spring with 55 ind./m3 and summer with 17 ind./m3, respectively. Distributional data showed that an area of high copepod density appeared in the southern portion of the study area in winter, while there was an area of high copepod density in the center of the survey area in autumn. Copepod abundance was higher in deeper waters, and lower in the coastal areas in spring and summer. Species diversity index was highest in summer and followed by spring, autumn and winter in turn. The evenness index of spring and summer copepod communities was higher than those of autumn and winter. The structure of these planktonic copepod communities reflects tropical and subtropical floristic characteristics. Species composition varied significantly with season, and copepod abundance was noticeably affected by water temperature and diatom cell abundance. We detected no obvious correlationship between copepod abundance and salinity.

Key words: planktonic copepod, western Hainan Island, species composition, abundance distribution, seasonal variation, environmental factors

Fig. 1

Sampling sites of planktonic copepods in Changjiang coastal waters off western Hainan Island"

Table 1

Seasonal change rate of planktonic copepods in Changjiang coastal waters off Hainan Island between 2008 and 2009"

春/夏
Spring /Summer
夏/秋
Summer/Autumn
秋/冬
Autumn/Winter
冬/春
Winter/Spring
种数 Species richness 22/23 23/25 25/23 23/22
共有种数 Number of common species 12 14 14 12
季节更替率 Seasonal change rate 63.6% 58.8% 58.8% 63.6%

Fig. 2

Horizontal distribution of Subeucalanus subcrassus in Changjiang coastal waters off Hainan Island between 2008 and 2009 (ind./m3)"

Fig. 3

Horizontal distribution of Canthocalanus pauper in Changjiang coastal waters off Hainan Island between 2008 and 2009 (ind./m3)"

Table 2

Seasonal variation of dominant species of planktonic copepods in Changjiang coastal waters off Hainan Island between 2008 and 2009"

季节
Season
优势种类
Dominant species
出现频度
Frequency
平均丰度
Average abundance (ind./m3)
丰度变化范围
Abundance range (ind./m3)
优势度
Dominancy
秋季 (11月) 微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper 1.00 34 3-155 0.11
Autumn (Nov.) 亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus 1.00 72 21-147 0.24
冬季 (1月) 刺尾纺锤水蚤 Acartia spinicauda 0.86 16 2-36 0.02
Winter (Jan.) 微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper 0.90 28 7-86 0.05
亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus 1.00 297 6-994 0.59
锥形宽水蚤 Temora turbinata 0.95 51 3-158 0.09
春季 (4月) 微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper 0.95 17 1-45 0.23
Spring (Apr.) 亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus 0.95 22 1-51 0.31
精致真刺水蚤 Euchaeta concinna 0.38 12 1-34 0.03
夏季 (7月) 微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper 0.86 4 1-14 0.05
Summer (July) 椭形长足水蚤 Calanopia elliptica 0.95 5 1-24 0.08
亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus 0.95 7 1-28 0.13

Fig. 4

Horizontal distribution of planktonic copepods abundance (ind./m3) in Changjiang coastal waters off Hainan Island between 2008 and 2009"

Fig. 5

Seasonal variations of planktonic copepods species diversity index and evenness index in Changjiang coastal waters off Hainan Island between 2008 and 2009"

Table 3

Regression analysis between abundance and diversity index of copepods and temperature and salinity in Changjiang coastal waters off Hainan Island between 2008 and 2009"

环境因子
Environmental variable
秋季 Autumn 冬季 Winter 春季 Spring 夏季 Summer
N H′ N H′ N H′ N H′
水温 Temperature -0.26 -0.02 0.39 -0.06 -0.04 -0.30 -0.06 -0.43
盐度 Salinity 0.25 -0.06 0.38 -0.25 0.28 0.69** 0.12 0.41

Table 4

Comparison of dominant species of planktonic copepods between the Changjiang coastal waters off Hainan Island and the historical data"

时间
Time
海域
Sea area
种类数
Species richness
资料来源
Data source
优势种(优势度)
Dominant species (Dominancy)
1998-1999年夏
The summer of 1998
and 1999
北部湾
Beibu Gulf
84 廖秀丽等, 2011 叉胸刺水蚤 Centropages furcatus (0.181)
微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper (0.069)
异尾宽水蚤 Temora discaudata (0.038)
亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus (0.029)
奥氏胸刺水蚤 Centropages orsinii (0.028)
椭形长足水蚤 Calanopia elliptica (0.022)
小唇角水蚤 Labidocera minuta (0.019)
长角隆哲水蚤 Acrocalanus longicornis (0.018)
1998-1999年冬
The winter of 1998
and 1999
北部湾
Beibu Gulf
67 廖秀丽等, 2011 微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper (0.154)
亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus (0.059)
异尾宽水蚤 Temora discaudata (0.029)
长角隆哲水蚤 Acrocalanus longicornis (0.024)
驼背隆哲水蚤 Acrocalanus gibber (0.020)
羽长腹剑水蚤 Oithona plumifera (0.019)
2006年夏
The summer of 2006
北部湾
Beibu Gulf
113 郭东晖等, 2008 亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus (0.21)
异尾宽水蚤 Temora discaudata (0.09)
椭形长足水蚤 Calanopia elliptica (0.05)
伯氏平头水蚤 Candacia bradyi (0.04)
普通波水蚤 Undinula vulgaris (0.03)
2006年冬
The winter of 2006
北部湾
Beibu Gulf
84 郭东晖等, 2008 亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus (0.43)
精致真刺水蚤 Euchaeta concinna (0.32)
微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper (0.04)
伯氏平头水蚤 Candacia bradyi (0.02)
2008-2009年夏
The summer of 2008
and 2009
海南昌江沿岸
Changjiang coastal waters of Hainan Island
26 本研究
This study
亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus (0.13)
椭形长足水蚤 Calanopia elliptica (0.08)
微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper (0.05)
2008-2009年冬
The winter of 2008
and 2009
海南昌江沿岸
Changjiang coastal waters of Hainan Island
27 本研究
This study
亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus (0.59)
锥形宽水蚤 Temora turbinata (0.09)
微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper (0.05)
刺尾纺锤水蚤 Acartia spinicauda (0.02)

Table S1

Species checklist of planktonic copepods in Changjiang coastal waters off Hainan Island"

物种 Taxa 秋季 Autumn 冬季 Winter 春季 Spring 夏季 Summer
哲水蚤科 Calanidae
微刺哲水蚤 Canthocalanus pauper

+

+

+

+
普通波水蚤 Undinula vulgaris + + + +
真哲水蚤科 Eucalanidae
强次真哲水蚤 Eucalanus crassua

+

+
亚强次真哲水蚤 Subeucalanus subcrassus + + + +
拟哲水蚤科 Paracalanidae
驼背隆哲水蚤 Acrocalanus gibber

+

+
微驼隆哲水蚤 A. gracilis +
厦门矮隆哲水蚤 Bestiola amoyensis +
小拟哲水蚤 Paracalanus parvus + +
宽水蚤科 Temoridae
锥形宽水蚤 Temora turbinata

+

+

+

+
异尾宽水蚤 T. discaudata + + +
柱形宽水蚤 T. stylifera + +
胸刺水蚤科 Centropagidae
瘦尾胸刺水蚤 Centropages tenuiremis

+

+

+

+
叉胸刺水蚤 C. furcatus +
背针胸刺水蚤 C. dorsispinatus +
奥氏胸刺水蚤 C. orsinii +
真刺水蚤科 Euchaetidae
精致真刺水蚤 Euchaeta concinna

+

+

+

+
光水蚤科 Lucicutiidae
黄角光水蚤 Lucicutia flavicornis
卵形光水蚤 L. ovalis


+

+
+


+
厚壳水蚤科 Scolecithricidae
绿齿厚壳水蚤 Scolecithrix nicobarica

+

+

+
平头水蚤科 Candaciidae
伯氏平头水蚤 Candacia bradyi

+

+
平头水蚤一种 Candacia. sp. +
角水蚤科 Pontellidae
汤氏长足水蚤 Calanopia thompsoni

+

+
椭形长足水蚤 C. elliptica + + +
双刺唇角水蚤 Labidocera bipinnata + + + +
小唇角水蚤 L. minuta + + + +
真刺唇角水蚤 L. euchaeta +
科氏唇角水蚤 L. kroyeri +
扩指简角水蚤 Pontellopsis inflatodigitata + +
瘦尾简角水蚤 P. tenuicauda + +
纺锤水蚤科 Acartiidae
太平洋纺锤水蚤 Acartia pacifica

+

+

+
刺尾纺锤水蚤 A. spinicauda +
红纺锤水蚤 A. erythraea + + +
小纺锤水蚤 A. negligens +
歪水蚤科 Tortanidae
钳形歪水蚤 Tortanus forcipatus

+

+

+

+
瘦歪水蚤 T. gracilis +
长腹剑水蚤科 Oithonidae
瘦长腹剑水蚤 Oithona tenuis

+
短角长腹剑水蚤 O. brevicornis + +
细长腹剑水蚤 O. attenuata +
大眼剑水蚤科 Corycaeidae
大眼剑水蚤一种 Corycaeus sp.


+


+
叶剑水蚤科 Sapphirinidae
黑点叶剑水蚤 Sapphirina nigromaculata

+
叶剑水蚤一种 Sapphirina sp. +
桨剑水蚤一种 Copilia sp. +
长猛水蚤科 Ectinosomatidae
挪威小星猛水蚤 Microsetella norvegica

+
怪水蚤科 Monstrillidae
怪水蚤一种 Monstrilla sp.

+
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