生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (8): 896-906.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016111

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青岛崂山湾人工鱼礁区底层游泳动物群落结构特征

刘鸿雁, 杨超杰, 张沛东, 李文涛, 杨晓龙, 张秀梅*()   

  1. 中国海洋大学海水养殖教育部重点实验室, 山东青岛 266003
  • 收稿日期:2016-04-25 接受日期:2016-07-19 出版日期:2016-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 张秀梅 E-mail:gaozhang@ouc.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家海洋公益性行业科研专项(201405010;201305043)和国家自然科学基金(31572227)

Demersal nekton community structure of artificial reef zones in Laoshan Bay, Qingdao

Hongyan Liu, Chaojie Yang, Peidong Zhang, Wentao Li, Xiaolong Yang, Xiumei Zhang*()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266003
  • Received:2016-04-25 Accepted:2016-07-19 Online:2016-08-20
  • Contact: Zhang Xiumei E-mail:gaozhang@ouc.edu.cn

基于2015年5月至2016年1月在青岛崂山湾人工鱼礁区的调查数据, 采用Margalef种类丰富度指数(d)、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')、Pielou均匀度指数(J)、丰度/生物量曲线、等级聚类分析、SIMPER相似性百分比分析和非度量多维尺度排序(NMDS)分析, 对底层游泳动物群落结构和多样性进行研究。调查期间共捕获游泳动物61种, 隶属34科, 其中鱼类36种, 甲壳类22种, 头足类3种。优势种为日本蟳(Charybdis japonica)、许氏平鲉(Sebastes schlegelii)、大泷六线鱼(Hexagrammus otakii)、斑头鱼(H. agrammus)和星康吉鳗(Conger myriaster), 其中日本蟳(26.91%)和许氏平鲉(26.74%)的生物量占绝对优势。礁区游泳动物的渔获量和渔获种类数均多于对照区, 月平均单位捕捞努力量渔获量(CPUE)最高值出现在5月, 达到735.74 ± 316.59 g·net-1·d-1。游泳动物群落组成的特征值上, 7、8月的多样性指数较高, 但鱼礁区和对照区无显著差异(P>0.05)。丰度/生物量曲线表明, 5、6月游泳动物群落处于严重受干扰状态, 11月和次年1月群落处于相对稳定状态。聚类分析表明, 除1月外, 各月份不同区域的样方相似性都较高, 5、6月三亩前礁区的相似性最高, 达到86.21%。

关键词: 人工鱼礁, 游泳动物群落结构, 多样性, 丰度/生物量曲线, 崂山湾

A field survey of the artificial reef and the control zones in Laoshan Bay, Shandong Province was performed from May 2015 to January 2016. We analyzed the community structure and biodiversity of demersal nekton by using Margalef’s species richness index, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Pielou’s evenness index, abundance-biomass comparison curves, clustering analysis, SIMPER (similarity percentage) analysis, and Non-metric Multi Dimensional Scaling (NMDS). A total number of 61 species of nekton belonging to 34 families were captured during the surveys, including 36 species of fish, 22 species of crustaceans and 3 species of cephalopods. Charybdis japonica, Sebastes schlegelii, Hexagrammus otakii, H. agrammus and Conger myriaster were the dominant species, of which C. japonica and S. schlegelii were the dominant species by weight (26.91% and 26.74%, respectively). The highest monthly mean catch per unit effort (CPUE) in the investigated zones appeared in May 2015, and reached up to 735.74 g· net-1·d-1. It was noted that the diversity indices were higher in July and August, but there were no significant differences in community structure parameters between the artificial reef and the control zones (P>0.05). The abundance-biomass curves (ABC) of the nekton community indicated that the community was seriously disturbed in May and June 2015, but was stable by November 2015 and January 2016. Cluster analysis showed that similarities were high in different months and different zones, except January 2016, and the highest similarity appeared in the artificial reef of the Sanmuqian zone between May and June 2015, when it reached 86.21%.

Key words: artificial reef, nekton community structure, diversity, abundance-biomass comparison curves, Laoshan Bay

图1

崂山湾鱼礁区和对照区游泳动物调查站位"

表1

崂山湾人工鱼礁区底层水域环境特征"

环境变量
Environment
variable
1月
Jan.
5月
May
6月
Jun.
7月
Jul.
8月
Aug.
9月
Sept.
10月
Oct.
11月
Nov.
水温
Temperature (℃)
4.57 ± 0.12a 11.93 ± 0.23b 14.09 ± 0.08c 22.68 ± 0.51d 25.84 ± 0.11e 24.70 ± 0.06f 20.30 ± 0.15g 14.09 ± 0.05c
溶解氧含量
DO (mg/L)
8.33 ± 1.45a 9.18 ± 0.78ab 7.89 ± 0.84b 6.04 ± 0.33c 4.22 ± 0.43d 4.67 ± 0.03de 6.71 ± 0.05c 5.78 ± 0.02dce
盐度 Salinity 31.29 ± 0.20a 31.87 ± 0.06b 31.19 ± 0.07b 30.96 ± 0.03c 30.86 ± 0.04c 30.99 ± 0.03c 31.16 ± 0.03b 30.51 ± 0.15d
pH 7.80 ± 0.12a 7.70 ± 0.03b 7.85 ± 0.05c 7.59 ± 0.03a 7.77 ± 0.08b 7.73 ± 0.04b 7.70 ± 0.03ab 7.89 ± 0.07d

图2

单位捕捞努力量均值的月变化"

表2

2015年5月至2016年1月崂山湾主要游泳动物的Pinkas相对重要性指数(“-”表示未捕获)"

种类
Species
5月
May
6月
Jun.
7月
Jul.
8月
Aug.
9月
Sept.
10月
Oct.
11月
Nov.
1月
Jan.
许氏平鲉 Sebastes schlegelii 4,665 2,671 1,829 847 2,413 2,935 10,485 7,963
日本蟳 Charybdis japonica 2,045 2,161 7,852 8,158 7,728 9,420 2,386 189
大泷六线鱼 Hexagrammus otakii 5,288 6,303 1,794 734 1,522 1,467 1,406 2,065
斑头鱼 Hexagrammus agrammus 1,601 3,168 75 530 350 518 1,065 339
星康吉鳗 Conger myriaster 394 134 1,372 807 1,290 1,103 747 13
寄居蟹科 Paguridae 1,045 1,206 2,496 1,957 24 46 - 642
褐菖鲉 Sebastiscus mamoratus 27 93 31 138 871 2,087 1,567 199
朝鲜平鲉 Sebastes koreanus 691 616 30 10 330 359 225 47
长蛸 Octopus variabilis 616 69 45 - 159 683 95 191
厚头平鲉 Sebastes pachycephalus 281 328 - 17 69 195 154 79
口虾蛄 Oratosquilla oratoria 23 34 398 418 1,041 188 158 -
敖氏长臂虾 Palaemon ortmanni 53 32 19 150 47 225 61 -
繸鳚 Chirolophis japonicus 167 4 - - - - - 23
方氏云鳚 Pholis fangi 4 2 - - 33 25 503 -
花鲈 Lateolabrax maculatus - - 10 - 588 117 787 -
强壮菱蟹 Parthenope validus - - 49 185 518 - - -
三疣梭子蟹 Portunus trituberculatus - - - 5 1,107 - 31 -
黄姑鱼 Nibea albiflora - - - 40 519 34 - -
银姑鱼 Pennahia argentata - - - - 205 - - -
褐牙鲆 Paralichthys olivaceus - - 16 4 436 - - -

图3

2015年5月至2016年1月崂山湾游泳动物丰度/生物量曲线"

图4

崂山湾不同区域游泳动物群落多样性指数的季节变化"

图5

崂山湾不同区域不同月份游泳动物群落聚类分析(数字表示月份, 字母表示区域)"

图6

崂山湾不同区域不同月份游泳动物群落NMDS排序分析。数字表示月份, 字母表示区域。"

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