生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (6): 677-687.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.11088

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海南热带雨林次生林边缘至林内鸟类群落组成与功能集团比较

高建云1,2, 吴兆录1, 张强2, 苏栋栋1,2, 赵仁东3, 邹发生2,*()   

  1. 1 云南大学生态学与地植物学研究所, 昆明 650091
    2 广东省昆虫研究所/华南濒危动物研究所, 广州 510260
    3 海南猴猕岭省级自然保护区, 海南东方 572600
  • 收稿日期:2013-04-09 接受日期:2013-05-30 出版日期:2013-11-20 发布日期:2013-12-02
  • 通讯作者: 邹发生
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31172067);广东省计划项目(2010B060200034)

Comparison of compositions and functional guilds of bird communities across an edge-interior gradient in secondary forest at Houmiling, Hainan Island, China

Jianyun Gao1,2, Zhaolu Wu1, Qiang Zhang2, Dongdong Su1,2, Rendong Zhao3, Fasheng Zou2,*()   

  1. 1 Institute of Ecology and Geobotany, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091
    2 Guangdong Entomological Institute/South China Institute of Endangered Animals, Guangzhou 510260
    3 Hainan Houmiling Nature Reserve, Dongfang, Hainan 572600
  • Received:2013-04-09 Accepted:2013-05-30 Online:2013-11-20 Published:2013-12-02
  • Contact: Zou Fasheng

摘要:

为探讨边缘效应对热带常绿季雨林鸟类群落的影响, 作者以海南猴猕岭省级自然保护区次生林为研究对象, 设置距离森林边缘0-100 m(边缘带)、101-300 m(中间带)、301-500 m(内部带)的距离梯度, 采用固定样点法和网捕法调查、比较其中的鸟类群落, 分析次生林由边缘至内部不同距离梯度中鸟类群落组成与功能集团的异同。2010至2012年调查期间共记录93种鸟类。不同距离梯度中每个样点记录的平均物种数和平均个体数均存在显著差异, 都是中间带最高、内部带次之、边缘带最低。森林专性种主要分布在中间带和内部带, 这些种的数量也显著高于边缘带; 森林广幅种主要分布在边缘带和中间带, 其数量以中间带最丰富; 非森林鸟类主要集中在边缘带, 其数量明显高于中间带和内部带。食果鸟以内部带最高、中间带次之、边缘带最低; 林下层食虫鸟、垂直层食虫鸟和食花蜜鸟在中间带最高、内部带次之、边缘带最低; 地面食虫鸟和杂食性鸟, 以边缘带最高、中间带次之、内部带最低; 食谷鸟主要分布在边缘带中, 中间带和内部带很少。食果鸟、食虫鸟和食花蜜鸟对森林的边缘敏感、逃避边缘栖息地, 而食谷鸟和杂食性鸟偏好边缘栖息地。总之, 边缘效应对海南岛森林鸟类多样性产生负效应。

关键词: 热带常绿季雨林, 次生林, 边缘效应, 鸟类群落, 功能集团, 海南猴猕岭

Abstract:

To understand edge effects on bird communities in a secondary-growth tropical rainforest, we examined how forest bird communities and different guilds change from the edge to the interior of a secondary forest at Houmiling Nature Reserve, Hainan. The study was conducted between August 2010 and September 2012, and used point counts and mist netting to survey birds at three sampling transects from the forest edge: 0-100 m (edge transect), 101-300 m (intermediate transect) and 301-500 m (interior transect). A total of 93 species were recorded. There were significant differences among the three sampling transects for mean species richness and mean number of individuals per point. Multiple comparisons revealed that species richness and individual abundance was highest in the intermediate transect and lowest in the edge transect. Species composition differed significantly from the edge to the interior transect. Intermediate and interior transects supported more forest-dependent species and forest generalists whose guilds were composed of frugivores, nectarivores and insectivores, which were sensitive to conditions at the forest edge. The edge transect harboured more open-habitat users, as well as a great number of granivores, ground insectivores and omnivores. In conclusion, forest edges have negative effects on bird diversity on Hainan Island, which should be borne in mind when developing strategies for forest bird conservation and habitat management.

Key words: tropical evergreen monsoon forest, secondary forest, edge effects, bird communities, bird compositions and functional guilds, Houmiling on Hainan Island