生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (3): 269-276.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019102

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

西藏极小种群野生植物密叶红豆杉种群的性比及雌雄空间格局

宋垚彬1#, 徐力1#, 段俊鹏1, 张卫军1, 申屠晓露1, 李天翔1, 臧润国2, 董鸣1, 3, *()   

  1. 1. 杭州师范大学生态系统保护与恢复杭州市重点实验室, 杭州 310036
    2. 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 北京 100091
    3. 绵阳师范学院生态安全与保护四川省重点实验室, 四川绵阳 621000
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-28 接受日期:2019-06-10 出版日期:2020-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 董鸣 E-mail:dongming@hznu.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0503100);“极小种群野生植物生存潜力与维持机制研究”课题(2016YFC0503101)

Sex ratio and spatial pattern of Taxus fuana, a Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations in Tibet

Yaobin Song1#, Li Xu1#, Junpeng Duan1, Weijun Zhang1, Xiaolu Shentu1, Tianxiang Li1, Runguo Zang2, Ming Dong1, 3, *()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Hangzhou City for Ecosystem Protection and Restoration, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036
    Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091
    Ecological Security and Protection Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Mianyang Normal University, Mianyang 621000
  • Received:2019-03-28 Accepted:2019-06-10 Online:2020-03-20
  • Contact: Ming Dong E-mail:dongming@hznu.edu.cn

雌雄异株植物种群具有性比和雌雄个体空间分布格局, 这对个体成功繁殖、种群生存潜力、天然更新能力和遗传多样性的维持都是重要的, 对于珍稀濒危雌雄异株植物种群尤其如此。密叶红豆杉(Taxus fuana)为国家I级重点保护植物, 是首批列入《全国极小种群野生植物拯救保护工程规划》的120种极小种群野生植物之一, 具有重要的生态和经济价值。但目前关于密叶红豆杉种群生态学方面的研究, 尤其是性比结构与空间分布格局在国内外鲜有报道。本文对西藏吉隆地区的6个天然密叶红豆杉种群(吉普、多甫、朗久、吉隆、开热和唐蕃)进行了实地调查, 研究其性比结构及其空间分布格局。结果表明, 调查的6个种群中总计雄株1,651株, 雌株1,231株, 仅吉普(雄/雌 = 1.89)与吉隆(雄/雌 = 1.39)两个种群有显著的性别偏倚现象且显著偏雄性(P < 0.001)。6个种群雌雄植株间的空间相关性不强, 整体趋于相互独立。不同径级间, 吉隆和开热种群的性比格局相似, 均在小径级上性比显著偏雄性, 而吉普种群则在中等径级上显著偏雄性。综上, 不同密叶红豆杉种群的大小、性比、雌雄个体的大小级结构以及空间分布格局等均表现出不同。因此, 需要结合各个种群本身的发展动态、受干扰的类型以及各区域环境因子的差异进行有针对性的保护。

关键词: 密叶红豆杉, 雌雄异株, 性比, 空间格局, 极小种群野生植物

Dioecious plant populations possess sex ratio and gender distribution of individuals, which are important for individual reproduction, population viability, natural regeneration and maintenance of genetic diversity. This is particularly true for rare and endangered dioecious ones. In China, Taxus fuana is among the 120 Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations (WPESP) and observed only in the Jilong County of Tibet Autonomous Region. However, little has been reported about its population ecology, especially about its sex ratio and gender spatial distribution pattern of individuals. We did a field investigation for six T. fuana populations in Jilong and recorded 1,651 male and 1,231 female individuals in total, whereby its sex ratio and gender spatial distribution pattern of individuals per population were analyzed. Our results showed that Jipu (male/female = 1.89) and Kaire (male/female = 1.39) populations tended to be male-biased (P < 0.001), but male and female individuals from the six populations showed weak spatial association. Individuals of smaller size of Jilong and Kaire populations showed significantly male-biased, while male biased occurred medium size of Jipu population. In summary, T. fuana populations were different in size structure distribution, sex ratio, size structure of male and female individuals, and their spatial patterns. Our study suggests that it is necessary to carry out targeted conservation considering different population characteristics, disturbance types, and environmental factors.

Key words: Taxus fuana, dioecism, sex ratio, spatial pattern, Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations

表1

密叶红豆杉种群概况"

种群名称 Population 经纬度 Locality 海拔 Altitude (m) 种群面积 Population area (m × m) 种群数量 Population size (ind.)
吉普 Jipu 85.33° E, 28.37° N 2,650-2,780 1,600 × 300 ~3,000
多甫 Duofu 85.31° E, 28.39° N 2,737-2,875 250 × 70 95
朗久 Langjiu 85.36° E, 28.40° N 2,810-2,865 250 × 80 63
吉隆 Jilong 85.33° E, 28.40° N 2,910-3,150 750 × 550 2,534
开热 Kaire 85.22° E, 28.47° N 3,140-3,170 800 × 160 1,766
唐蕃 Tangbo 85.22° E, 28.48° N 3,200 60 × 45 64

图1

密叶红豆杉种群大小级结构(S1-S7代表不同大小径级)"

表2

密叶红豆杉种群性比"

种群
Population
雄株
Male (N)
雌株
Female (N)
性比(雄/雌)
Sex ratio
P
吉普 Jipu 350 185 1.89 <0.001
多甫 Duofu 18 11 1.64 0.502
朗久 Langjiu 19 27 0.70 0.530
吉隆 Jilong 620 445 1.39 <0.001
开热 Kaire 609 545 1.12 0.197
唐蕃 Tangbo 35 18 1.94 0.138
总计 Total 1,651 1,231 1.34 <0.001

图2

密叶红豆杉种群不同径级的性比格局。 *, **和***分别表示性比在P < 0.05, P < 0.01和P < 0.001下显著偏离1 : 1; ns表示性比不显著(P ≥ 0.05)偏离1 : 1。"

图3

密叶红豆杉种群雌雄植株间的空间关联。实线为g(r)值, 虚线为99%置信区间。"

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