生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (3): 248-257.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018027

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京近郊深土层动物群落结构特征

莫畏1, 2, 王志良2, 李猷2, 郭建军1, 2, *(), 张润志2, 3, *()   

  1. 1 (贵州大学昆虫研究所, 贵阳 550025)
    2 (中国科学院动物研究所, 北京 100101)
    3 (中国科学院大学, 北京 100049)
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-29 接受日期:2018-03-23 出版日期:2018-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 郭建军,张润志 E-mail:jjguo@gzu.edu.cn;zhangrz@ioz.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31572312)

Faunal communities of deep soil layers in suburban Beijing

Wei Mo1, 2, Zhiliang Wang2, You Li2, Jianjun Guo1, 2, *(), Runzhi Zhang2, 3, *()   

  1. 1 Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025
    2 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2018-01-29 Accepted:2018-03-23 Online:2018-03-20
  • Contact: Guo Jianjun,Zhang Runzhi E-mail:jjguo@gzu.edu.cn;zhangrz@ioz.ac.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

为了解城市近郊深层土壤中动物群落结构组成, 2012年在北京市北四环和北五环之间的中国科学院奥运村科技园区埋设陷阱收集器, 对地下30 cm和55 cm土层活动的动物进行采样。2013-2017年8次调查共捕获动物3门10纲20目10,163头, 优势类群分别是膜翅目(61.0%)、蜱螨目(12.1%)和弹尾目(11.2%)。30 cm土层动物类群数和个体数均高于55 cm, 30 cm土层优势类群为膜翅目(69.4%), 55 cm土层优势类群除膜翅目(45.7%)外还有蜱螨目(21.8%)和弹尾目(16.4%)。夏秋季动物个体数和类群数高于冬春季, 环节动物门仅出现于冬春季, 而缨翅目、啮虫目和革翅目仅出现于夏秋季。不同绿化带类型间动物群落Jaccard相似性指数均高于0.75, Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Simpson优势度指数和Pielou均匀度指数均不存在显著性差异(P > 0.05)。结果表明: 深层土壤中存在着大量的动物类群, 动物个体数和类群数均随土层加深而减少。不同季节人工绿地土壤中动物结构存在差异, 而不同植被类型下动物群落组成高度相似。

关键词: 土壤动物, 群落结构, 土壤深层, 多样性, 人工绿地

In order to reveal composition of faunal communities in deep soil, we investigated soil at 30 and 55 cm at the Olympic Campus of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in a suburb of Beijing using trap collectors. A total of 10,163 individuals representing 20 orders belonging to ten classes and three phyla were captured in eight surveys carried out over five years. The dominant groups were Hymenoptera (61.0%), Acarina (12.1%) and Collembola (11.2%). The individuals and groups in the 30 cm soil layer were greater than at 55 cm. The dominant group of the 30 cm soil layer was Hymenoptera (69.4%) while at 55 cm, Hymenoptera (45.7%), Acarina (21.8%) and Collembola (16.4%) were all dominant. The number of individuals and groups recorded from April to October was greater than October to April of the next year. Annelida appeared only between October to April of the next year, while Thysanoptera, Psocoptera, Dermaptera appeared only between April to October. The lowest Jaccard value of soil faunal communities in different vegetation forms was 0.75. None of Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Simpson dominance index and Pielou evenness index showed significant differences between different vegetation types (P > 0.05). The results showed that there were abundant soil faunal communities in deep soil. The number of individuals and groups decreased with increasing soil depth. Soil faunal community structure was different in different seasons and the composition was highly similar between different vegetation types.

Key words: soil animal, community structure, deep soil, diversity, treelawn

图1

样本收集器"

表1

中国科学院奥运村科技园土壤中动物群落组成"

表2

中国科学院奥运村科技园不同季节深土层动物群落组成"

夏秋季 April to October 冬春季 October to April of the next year
个体数
Individuals
% 优势度
Dominance
个体数
Individuals
% 优势度
Dominance
膜翅目 Hymenoptera 3,719 69.7 +++ 1,413 48.7 +++
同翅目 Homoptera 142 2.7 ++ 114 3.9 ++
鞘翅目 Coleoptera 77 1.4 ++ 83 2.9 ++
双翅目 Diptera 154 2.9 ++ 146 5 ++
半翅目 Hemiptera 4 0.1 + 2 0.1 +
直翅目 Orthoptera 38 0.7 + 2 0.1 +
缨翅目 Thysanoptera 2 0 +
啮虫目 Psocoptera 1 0 +
革翅目 Dermaptera 2 0 +
石蜈蚣目 Lithobiomorpha 74 1.4 ++ 32 1.1 ++
地蜈蚣目 Geophilomorpha 7 0.1 + 17 0.6 +
蜱螨目 Acarina 572 10.7 +++ 406 14 +++
蜘蛛目 Araneae 42 0.8 + 24 0.8 +
带马陆目 Polydesmida 15 0.3 + 10 0.3 +
弹尾目 Collembola 264 4.9 ++ 548 18.9 +++
双尾目 Diplura 73 1.4 ++ 37 1.3 ++
等足目 Isopoda 93 1.7 ++ 51 1.8 ++
综合目 Symphyla 16 0.3 + 1 0 +
柄眼目 Stylommatophora 43 0.8 + 12 0.4 +
后孔寡毛目 Opisthopora 1 0 +
总数 Total 5,338 2,899

表3

中国科学院奥运村科技园不同类型绿化带中深土层动物类群组成"

类群
Group
草本型 Lawn 灌木型 Shrubbery 乔木型 Arboreal forest 混合型 Mixed forest 食性
Feeding habit
个体数
Indivi-
duals
% 优势度
Domi-
nance
个体数
Indivi-
duals
% 优势度
Domi-
nance
个体数
Indivi-
duals
% 优势度
Domi-
nance
个体数
Indivi-
duals
% 优势度
Domi-
nance
膜翅目 Hymenoptera 778 49.1 +++ 1,397 49.7 +++ 1,732 66.3 +++ 2,288 72.5 +++ O
同翅目 Homoptera 67 4.2 ++ 129 4.6 ++ 113 4.3 ++ 9 0.3 + O
鞘翅目 Coleoptera 52 3.3 ++ 60 2.1 ++ 69 2.6 ++ 30 1 ++ Pr
双翅目 Diptera 24 1.5 ++ 55 2 ++ 210 8 ++ 30 1 ++ S
半翅目 Hemiptera 2 0.1 + 2 0.1 + 2 0.1 + Ph
直翅目 Orthoptera 4 0.3 + 3 0.1 + 16 0.6 + 17 0.5 + Ph
缨翅目 Thysanoptera 2 0.1 + Ph
啮虫目 Psocoptera 1 0.1 + Ph
革翅目 Dermaptera 2 0.1 + O
石蜈蚣目 Lithobiomorpha 29 1.8 ++ 65 2.3 ++ 26 1 ++ 19 0.6 + Pr
地蜈蚣目 Geophilomorpha 7 0.4 + 24 0.9 + 3 0.1 + 5 0.2 + Pr
蜱螨目 Acarina 230 14.5 +++ 511 18.2 +++ 138 5.3 ++ 347 11 +++ O
蜘蛛目 Araneae 6 0.4 + 38 1.4 ++ 27 1 ++ 10 0.3 + Pr
带马陆目 Polydesmida 2 0.1 + 14 0.5 + 13 0.5 + 5 0.2 + Ph
弹尾目 Collembola 283 17.9 +++ 282 10 +++ 235 9 ++ 337 10.7 +++ O
双尾目 Diplura 44 2.8 ++ 83 3 ++ 15 0.6 + 15 0.5 + D
等足目 Isopoda 25 1.6 ++ 100 3.6 ++ 5 0.2 + 14 0.4 + S
综合目 Symphyla 16 1 ++ 4 0.1 + 5 0.2 + 8 0.3 + Pr
柄眼目 Stylommatophora 13 0.8 + 45 1.6 ++ 4 0.2 + 14 0.4 + Ph
后孔寡毛目 Opisthopora 1 0 + 2 0.1 + S
总数 Total 1,583 2,813 2,613 3,154

图2

中国科学院奥运村科技园不同绿化带类型深土层动物生态指数(平均值 ± 标准误)"

表4

中国科学院奥运村科技园不同绿化带类型深土层动物群落相似性指数"

绿化带类型
Treelawn
灌木型
Shrubbery
乔木型
Arboreal forest
混合型
Mixed forest
草本型 Lawn 0.79 0.83 0.75
灌木型 Shrubbery 0.83 0.75
乔木型 Arboreal forest 0.79
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