生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (10): 1069-1080.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019059

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

浙江古田山次生与老龄常绿阔叶林群落特征的比较

张田田1, 王璇2, 任海保2, 余建平3, 金毅1, 钱海源3, 宋小友3, 马克平2, 于明坚1, *()   

  1. 1 浙江大学生命科学学院, 杭州 310058
    2 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    3 钱江源国家公园生态资源保护中心, 浙江开化 324300
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-28 接受日期:2019-09-01 出版日期:2019-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 于明坚 E-mail:fishmj@zju.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    科技部基础性工作专项(2015FY210200-17);浙江省科技计划(2015C02016);浙江省科技计划(2017C02028)

A comparative study on the community characteristics of secondary and old-growth evergreen broad-leaved forests in Gutianshan, Zhejiang Province

Zhang Tiantian1, Wang Xuan2, Ren Haibao2, Yu Jianping3, Jin Yi1, Qian Haiyuan3, Song Xiaoyou3, Ma Keping2, Yu Mingjian1, *()   

  1. 1 College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058
    2 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    3 Center of Ecology and Resources, Qianjiangyuan National Park, Kaihua, Zhejiang 324300
  • Received:2019-02-28 Accepted:2019-09-01 Online:2019-10-20
  • Contact: Yu Mingjian E-mail:fishmj@zju.edu.cn

常绿阔叶林为东亚亚热带地区的地带性植被, 对该地区的生物多样性维持和社会发展具有重要的意义。由于长期人类活动的影响, 目前我国分布的常绿阔叶林绝大部分为次生常绿阔叶林。探究次生与老龄常绿阔叶林群落特征的差异, 有利于了解人类干扰对亚热带常绿阔叶林的影响, 为其保护和恢复提供依据。本研究在古田山老龄与次生常绿阔叶林内共设置了29个0.04 ha样地, 比较两者在优势种组成、物种和功能多样性以及生物量等方面的差异。结果表明: (1)次生林与老龄林优势种组成相似, 二者均以甜槠(Castanopsis eyrei)、木荷(Schima superba)等典型常绿阔叶林优势种为主, 但这些树种在次生和老龄常绿阔叶林中的优势度次序不同。(2)整体而言, 次生林的Shannon-Wiener指数和功能离散度高于老龄林; 次生林与老龄林的物种Bray-Curtis指数和功能Sørensen指数均无显著差别。(3)就垂直层次而言, 次生林与老龄林在Shannon-Wiener指数和Bray-Curtis指数的差异主要体现在乔木层和灌木层。(4)就群落结构而言, 次生林的植株密度高于老龄林, 但群落水平和个体水平的生物量均显著小于老龄林。上述结果表明, 人类干扰改变了古田山常绿阔叶林群落的多个重要特征, 不同群落特征的恢复过程并不同步。因此, 对常绿阔叶林生物多样性和生态系统功能的保护和恢复需要从多个角度着手。

关键词: 老龄林, 次生林, 物种组成, α多样性, β多样性, 功能性状, 生物量, 植株密度

Evergreen broad-leaved forests (EBLFs), which are the primary zonal vegetation of subtropical East Asia, shelter high biodiversity and contribute significantly to human welfare. Today, most EBLFs are secondary growth due to long-term human activity. The few remaining old-growth EBLFs are small, scattered patches. Understanding how secondary and old-growth EBLFs differ in their community characteristics would provide guidance for their conservation and restoration. Here, we compare the dominant species composition, species and functional diversity, and aboveground biomass between old-growth (fifteen 20 m × 20 m plots) and secondary (fourteen 20 m × 20 m plots) EBLFs in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve (GNNR). We found that: (1) Both old-growth and secondary EBLFs were dominated by the same set of evergreen broad-leaved species, such as Castanopsis eyrei and Schima superba, but the species dominance order was inconsistent in the two forest types. (2) Secondary EBLFs had a higher Shannon-Wiener index value and greater functional dispersion than old-growth EBLFs, but neither the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index values nor the functional Sørensen index values differed greatly between secondary and old-growth EBLFs. (3) When considering three vertical forest layers separately, the differences in the Shannon-Wiener and Bray-Curtis indices between secondary and old-growth EBLFs were mainly reflected in the tree and shrub layers. (4) Looking at the community structure overall, the stem density was greater in secondary EBLFs than old-growth EBLFs. Additionally, the community level and the individual level biomass were both lower in secondary EBLFs than old-growth EBLFs. These findings suggest that human disturbance has changed multiple characteristics of the EBLFs in GNNR, and their recovery process has been asymmetrical. Accordingly, any conservation plans to restore the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in EBLFs should adopt a multi-faceted strategy.

Key words: old-growth forest, secondary forest, species composition, α diversity, β diversity, functional trait, biomass, stem density

表1

古田山国家级自然保护区老龄和次生常绿阔叶林重要值排名前十的木本植物"

排名 Rank 老龄林 Old-growth forest 重要值 IV 排名 Rank 次生林 Secondary forest 重要值 IV
1 甜槠 Castanopsis eyrei 17.22 1 木荷 Schima superba 16.86
2 木荷 Schima superba 9.09 2 甜槠 Castanopsis eyrei 11.34
3 马银花 Rhododendron ovatum 5.00 3 格药柃 Eurya muricata 4.25
4 格药柃 Eurya muricata 3.63 4 檵木 Loropetalum chinense 3.80
5 马尾松 Pinus massoniana 3.09 5 青冈 Cyclobalanopsis glauca 3.42
6 虎皮楠 Daphniphyllum oldhami 3.07 6 石栎 Lithocarpus glaber 3.26
7 红楠 Machilus thunbergii 2.54 7 马尾松 Pinus massoniana 2.46
8 青冈 Cyclobalanopsis glauca 2.45 8 鹿角杜鹃 Rhododendron latoucheae 2.23
9 毛花连蕊茶 Camellia trichoclada 2.41 9 杉木 Cunninghamia lanceolata 2.22
10 鹿角杜鹃 Rhododendron latoucheae 2.12 10 马银花 Rhododendron ovatum 2.21

图1

古田山国家级自然保护区老龄和次生常绿阔叶林Shannon-Wiener指数(A)和功能离散度(B)的比较。若两个箱线图上方的字母不同, 则表明存在显著性差异(Padj < 0.05, Wilcoxon秩和检验, P值通过Holm方法校正)。"

图2

古田山国家级自然保护区老龄和次生常绿阔叶林灌木层(A)、亚乔木层(B)和乔木层(C)的Shannon-Wiener指数比较。若两个箱线图上方的字母不同, 则表明存在显著性差异(Padj < 0.05, Wilcoxon秩和检验, P值通过Holm方法校正)。"

表2

古田山国家级自然保护区常绿阔叶林Shannon-Wiener指数和功能离散度与环境因子的关系。*, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001。"

Shannon-Wiener指数 Shannon-Wiener index 功能离散度 Functional dispersion
截距 Intercept 19.933*** 0.1944***
人类干扰 Human disturbance 10.271** 0.0259
sin(坡向) sin(Aspect)
cos(坡向) cos(Aspect) -4.658*
海拔 Elevation 0.0001
坡度 Slope

图3

古田山国家级自然保护区次生常绿阔叶林群落特征与林龄的线性回归模型结果"

图4

古田山国家级自然保护区老龄林和次生林的物种稀疏曲线"

图5

古田山国家级自然保护区老龄和次生常绿阔叶林间物种Bray-Curtis指数(A)和功能Sørensen指数(B)比较。若两个箱线图上方的字母不同, 则表明存在显著性差异(Padj < 0.05, Wilcoxon秩和检验, P值通过Holm方法校正)。"

图6

古田山国家级自然保护区老龄和次生常绿阔叶林灌木层(A)、亚乔木层(B)和乔木层(C)的物种Bray-Curtis指数比较。若两个箱线图上方的字母不同, 则表明存在显著性差异(Padj < 0.05, Wilcoxon秩和检验, P值通过Holm方法校正)。"

表3

环境因子对样地植株密度和地上部分生物量影响的线性回归结果。*, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001。"

植株密度
Stem density
地上部分生物量
Aboveground biomass
截距 Intercept -1.4915** 7231.301*
人类干扰
Human disturbance
1.0059*** -2881.881*
海拔 Elevation 6.135
sin (坡向) sin (Aspect)
cos (坡向) cos (Aspect)
坡度 Slope -0.4319**
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