生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (8): 940-947.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015349

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川西周公山柳杉人工林群落的边缘效应

王德艺1, 2, 郝建锋1, *(), 李艳1, 齐锦秋1, 裴曾莉1, 黄雨佳1, 蒋倩1, 陈亚1   

  1. 1 四川农业大学林学院, 成都 611130
    2 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2015-12-10 接受日期:2015-12-10 出版日期:2016-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 郝建锋 E-mail:haojf2005@aliyun.com
  • 基金项目:
    四川省教育厅一般项目(自然科学) (15ZB0020)、国家自然科学基金(31370628)、国家科技支撑计划(2011BAC09B05)和四川农业大学双支计划博士专项基金(00370401)

Examination of edge effects in a Cryptomeria fortunei plantation in Zhougong Mountain, western Sichuan

Deyi Wang1, 2, Jianfeng Hao1, *(), Yan Li1, Jinqiu Qi1, Zengli Pei1, Yujia Huang1, Qian Jiang1, Ya Chen1   

  1. 1 College of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130
    2 State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2015-12-10 Accepted:2015-12-10 Online:2016-08-20
  • Contact: Hao Jianfeng E-mail:haojf2005@aliyun.com

为研究人工林群落的边缘效应特征, 本文以川西周公山森林公园的柳杉(Cryptomeria fortunei)人工林破碎化大斑块为对象, 以植株平均胸径、平均高度、平均密度、丰富度指数(D)和Shannon-Wiener指数(H)来综合衡量边缘效应深度。在实地踏查的基础上, 从林缘向林内(梯度1至梯度5)设置5条样带(宽度为10 m), 在每条样带中设置4个10 m × 10 m的小样方进行调查。结果表明: (1)从物种组成上看, 在总面积为2,000 m2的20个小样方中共记录到111个物种, 隶属于54科96属, 物种数从林缘至林内递减。(2)从群落结构上看, 乔木层的平均胸径从林缘至林内呈减小趋势, 平均密度则相反, 平均高度无显著变化; 灌木层的平均密度从林缘向林内减小, 平均高度无显著变化; 草本层的平均密度和平均高度均呈减小趋势。(3)从物种多样性上看, 总体上各层次的丰富度指数和Shannon-Wiener指数均从林缘向林内呈减小趋势, 其中灌木层和草本层的变化趋势最明显; 同时, 林内各梯度与梯度1 (林缘)的共有种和相似性系数从林缘向林内递减。(4)分析各项群落特征发现, 平均高度、平均密度和相似性系数的数值在梯度2向梯度3过渡时的起伏变化最明显, 推断本研究中柳杉人工林斑块的边缘深度可达林内20 m。

关键词: 边缘效应, 柳杉人工林, 物种多样性, 群落结构, 物种组成

To investigate edge effects on community structure, species composition and diversity in an artificial forest, research was conducted on Zhougong Mountain, a forest park in western Sichuan, and a large fragmented plantation of Cryptomeria fortunei was selected as the sample plot. The average DBH (diameter at breast height), average height, average density, richness index (D) and Shannon-Wiener index (H) were used to evaluate edge effects. Based on a field survey, 5 transects (width = 10 m) were established from the edge to interior forest (gradient 1 to gradient 5), and 4 small plots (10 m × 10 m) were chosen in each transect using a random sampling method. Results showed that 111 species, belonging to 96 genera and 54 families were recorded in 20 small plots with a total area of 2,000 m2. The following results were also found in this investigation: (1) The number of species decreased away from the edge to forest interior. (2) In terms of community structure, a decrease of average DBH was found in the tree layer with the increase of edge gradients. Average density followed the opposite pattern and no significant differences were found in average height. In the shrub layer, average density decreased with the increase of edge gradients and no significant differences were found in average height. Average density and height both decreased from the edge to interior forest in the herb layer. (3) Based on the analysis of species diversity, richness index (D) and Shannon-Wiener index (H) of the plantation, decreased values were generally found with an increase of edge gradients, and were much more obvious in the shrub and herb layer. Moreover, the number of common species and Sørensen’s similarity coefficient between edge gradients in the forest interior and edge 1 both showed a decreasing trend from the edge to interior forest. (4) Based on a comprehensive analysis, a clear change of community was found between edge 2 and edge 3, indicating that edge effects can reach 20 m into the fragmented patch of the Cryptomeria fortunei plantation.

Key words: edge effect, Cryptomeria fortunei plantation, species diversity, community structure, species composition

图1

柳杉人工林群落的物种组成"

图2

柳杉人工林各边缘梯度的物种数"

图3

不同边缘梯度下周公山柳杉人工林乔木层的平均胸径(DBH)和平均高度(H) (平均值±标准差)。不同小写字母表示梯度间差异显著(P < 0.05)。"

图4

不同边缘梯度下柳杉人工林灌木层和草本层的平均高度(平均值±标准差)。不同小写字母表示梯度间差异显著(P < 0.05)。"

图5

不同边缘梯度下柳杉人工林不同层次的平均密度(平均值±标准差)。不同小写字母表示梯度间差异显著(P < 0.05)。"

图6

柳杉人工林各层次的丰富度指数(D)值和Shannon-Wiener指数(H) (平均值±标准差)。不同小写字母表示梯度间的D或H值差异显著(P < 0.05)。"

表1

柳杉人工林毗邻的边缘梯度间的共有植物种数与Sørensen相似性系数"

两两边缘梯度之间
Between edge gradients
梯度1-梯度2
Gradient 1-gradient 2
梯度2-梯度3
Gradient 2-gradient3
梯度3-梯度4
Gradient 3-gradient 4
梯度4-梯度5
Gradient 4-gradient 5
共有种数 Number of common species 45 34 27 31
相似性系数 Sørensen’s similarity coefficient 0.69 0.60 0.54 0.67

表2

柳杉人工林其他边缘梯度与梯度1的共有植物种数与Sørensen相似性系数"

两两边缘梯度之间
Between edge gradients
梯度1-梯度2
Gradient 1-gradient 2
梯度1-梯度3
Gradient 1-gradient 3
梯度1-梯度4
Gradient 1-gradient 4
梯度1-梯度5
Gradient 1-gradient 5
共有种数 Number of common species 45 35 29 30
相似性系数 Sørensen’s similarity coefficient 0.69 0.56 0.50 0.52
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