生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (6): 688-698.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.11073

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靖江沿岸秋季鱼类群聚的组成特点及其丰度生物量变化

孙莎莎1, 唐文乔1,*(), 郭弘艺1, 李辉华1, 刘东1, 周天舒1, 陈浩洲2, 沈林宏2, 顾树信2   

  1. 1 上海海洋大学鱼类研究室, 水产种质资源发掘与利用省部共建教育部重点实验室, 上海 201306
    2 江苏省靖江市渔政管理站, 江苏靖江 214500
  • 收稿日期:2013-03-26 接受日期:2013-06-03 出版日期:2013-11-20 发布日期:2013-12-02
  • 通讯作者: 唐文乔
  • 基金资助:
    公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201203065)和高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金(20123104110006)

Composition and changes in abundance and biomass of fish assemblages along the Jingjiang section of the Yangtze River over the last decade

Shasha Sun1, Wenqiao Tang1,*(), Hongyi Guo1, Huihua Li1, Dong Liu1, Tianshu Zhou1, Haozhou Chen2, Linhong Shen2, Shuxin Gu2   

  1. 1 Laboratory of Fishes, Shanghai Ocean University, Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201306
    2 Administration of Fishery of Jingjiang, Jingjiang, Jiangsu 214500
  • Received:2013-03-26 Accepted:2013-06-03 Online:2013-11-20 Published:2013-12-02
  • Contact: Tang Wenqiao

摘要:

长江靖江段位于长江河口的近口段, 每天有两涨两落的不规则半日潮, 是国家级水产种质资源保护区, 在渔业资源养护中起着重要作用。为了弄清靖江段沿岸水域鱼类群聚的组成特点及其丰度生物量变化, 我们于2002-2011年对靖江沿岸秋季的鱼类群聚作了调查。结果显示, 10年间79个样本共有鱼类91种, 隶属于12目23科, 其中鲤形目47种, 鲈形目17种, 鲇形目10种; 从生态类型来看, 洄游鱼类4种, 河口鱼类13种, 淡水鱼类74种。10年间, 平均每年秋季出现鱼类47种, 平均Jaccard物种相似性系数仅53.72%, 处于中等相似水平。IRI≥100的优势种和常见种合计有42种, 年均19种, 占当年数量的92.26%。贝氏(Hemiculter bleekeri)、似鳊(Pseudobrama simony)、光泽黄颡鱼(Pseudobagrus nitidus)等小型种类, 以及翘嘴鲌(Culter alburnus)鳊(Parabramis pekinensis)、瓦氏黄颡鱼(P. vachellii)等中型种类的幼体是优势种和常见种的主体, 整个鱼类群聚的个体均重仅6.99 g。丰度生物量曲线显示, 除2010年外的其他年份, 第一优势种均为极小型鱼类, 2002-2009年的前面几个优势种也是小型鱼类, 仅2010和2011年有几种较大体型的种类加入到主要优势种行列。研究还显示, 最近10年来, 靖江沿岸水域秋季整个鱼类群聚的生物量、个体均重以及62%的优势种与常见种的种群数量, 在总体上有随年份而增加的趋势, 这预示着这一水域渔业资源可能已改善。

关键词: 长江, 沿岸水域, 鱼类群聚, 时间格局, ABC曲线

Abstract:

The Jingjiang section of the Yangtze River, which lies near the estuary with an irregular semidiurnal tide, is the National Aquatic Germplasm Resource Reserve and plays an important role in conserving fishery resources. To clarify the composition and changes in abundance/biomass of fish assemblages of these coastal waters, investigations were carried out along the Jingjiang section of the Yangtze River in the autumns of 2002 to 2011. Results showed that 91 species, belonging to 12 orders and 23 families, were collected from surveys conducted during this period. Fish included 47 species of Cypriniformes, 17 species of Perciformes and 10 species of Siluriformes. Four were migratory species, 13 were estuarine, and 74 were freshwater fish. The average number of different fish species recorded each autumn was 47 (range = 32-61), and mean Jaccard similarity index was 53.72 (range = 38.46-69.09)%. The total number of dominant and common species recorded was 42, with the annual value averaging 19. Dominant and common species were mainly small fish, such as Hemiculter bleekeri, Pseudobrama simony, Pseudobagrus nitidus etc., as well as juveniles of large or medium fish, such as Culter alburnus, Parabramis pekinensis, P. vachellii etc. The mean individual weight (MIW) of the fish assemblage was 6.99 g. The abundance biomass comparison curve indicated that the first dominant species recorded in autumn in all years except 2010 were all very small-sized fish. The most dominant species in 2002-2009 were also of small-size fish, and large-size fish only contributed to the dominant species in 2010 and 2011. Our research also indicated a general increase in abundance or biomass (CPUEN、CPUEW), the MIW of the fish assemblage, and the population size of 62% of dominant and common species. This suggested that fishery resources of the waters studied are likely to improve.

Key words: Yangtze River, offshore areas, fish assemblage, temporal pattern, ABC curve