生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (5): 608-617.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14112

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长白山不同海拔梯度裸肉足虫群落分布特征

刘芳1, 3, 李琪1, *(), 申聪聪2, 褚海燕2, 梁文举1   

  1. 1 中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所森林与土壤生态国家重点实验室, 沈阳 110164
    2 中国科学院南京土壤所土壤与农业可持续发展重点实验室, 南京 210008
    3 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2014-06-03 接受日期:2014-08-01 出版日期:2014-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 李琪 E-mail:liq@iae.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31170484和41371254)

Distribution of gymnamoebae communities along an elevational gradient in Changbai Mountains

Fang Liu1, 3, Qi Li1, *(), Congcong Shen2, Haiyan Chu2, Wenju Liang1   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110164
    2 State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008
    3 University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2014-06-03 Accepted:2014-08-01 Online:2014-09-20
  • Contact: Li Qi E-mail:liq@iae.ac.cn

裸肉足虫作为联结微生物和大中型土壤动物的重要环节, 在土壤生态系统物质循环和能量流动过程中起着重要作用。为探明裸肉足虫群落沿海拔梯度的分布特征及其主要驱动因子, 作者在长白山北坡选择不同海拔梯度(700 m、1,000 m、1,300 m、1,600 m、1,900 m和2,200 m), 采用最大可能数法对裸肉足虫进行了培养计数, 并采用平板培养、标记、分离再培养的方法进行了分类鉴定, 分析比较了不同海拔梯度裸肉足虫的群落组成和结构特征。结果表明: 长白山北坡裸肉足虫物种丰富, 不同海拔梯度裸肉足虫丰富度指数存在显著差异, 且与土壤酸碱度呈极显著正相关关系。其中林分较为单一的岳桦(Betula ermanii)林带(1,900 m)裸肉足虫丰富度最低, 位于植被交错带的针阔混交林带(1,000 m)裸肉足虫丰富度最大, Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和Pielou均匀度指数在不同海拔梯度间不存在显著性差异, 但变化趋势与丰富度一致。聚类分析结果显示, 1,300 m、1,600 m和1,900 m海拔带以及700 m和2,200 m海拔带裸肉足虫群落组成较为相似。典范对应分析(canonical correspondence analysis, CCA)显示, 裸肉足虫群落组成和结构主要受土壤酸碱度、铵态氮以及碳氮比的影响, 而海拔和土壤含水量对其没有显著影响。综上, 裸肉足虫群落多样性随海拔梯度的增加并未呈现递减或单峰的变化趋势, 土壤的基本理化性质是驱动裸肉足虫群落分布的主要因素; 此外, 地上植被也可能通过凋落物和根系分泌物间接影响裸肉足虫的群落组成和多样性。

关键词: 裸肉足虫, 多样性, 海拔梯度, 土壤理化特性, 植被带

As an important component of soil food web, gymnamoebae play a significant role in nutrient cycling and energy flows of terrestrial ecosystems by linking soil microorganisms and macro- and meso-fauna. Along an elevational gradient (700 m, 1,000 m, 1,300 m, 1,600 m, 1,900 m, 2,200 m) in Changbai Mountains, the community composition and structure of gymnamoebae were compared using most probable number (MPN) method and plate cultivation technique. The result suggested that gymnameobae richness differed significantly among the various elevational levels and was positively correlated with soil pH. The lowest richness was observed in an Betula ermanii forest with monospecies dominance (1,900 m), while the highest richness was observed in the 1,000 m ecotone. Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou envenness index performed similar patterns with richness, with no significant differences observed among different elevational levels. The community composition of gymnamoebae was more similar among 1,300 m, 1,600 m and 1,900 m and between 2,200 m and 700 m elevations. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that gymnamoebae community structure was correlated with soil pH, ammonium nitrogen and C/N ratio. However, gymnamoebae communities were not influenced by altitude and soil water content. In conclusion, unlike macroorganisms (e.g. trees and animals), the richness and diversity of gymnamoebae did not show monotonically decreasing or hump-shaped patterns along the elevational gradient, and soil physicochemical characteristics were the main factors that influencing their distribution. In addition, gymnamoebae community composition and structure might be also indirectly regulated by vegetation type through litter and root exudates.

Key words: gymnamoebae, diversity, elevational gradient, soil physicochemical characteristics, vegetation zone

图1

长白山不同海拔梯度土壤理化特性。不同字母表示在α=0.05水平上差异显著(n=5)。"

表1

不同海拔梯度裸肉足虫各属出现的频率和隶属营养类型"

属名及其缩写
Taxa (genus) with abbreviations
裸肉足虫出现频率
Detection frequency of gymnamoebae (p)
营养类群
Feeding guild
700 m 1,000 m 1,300 m 1,600 m 1,900 m 2,200 m
棘变虫属 Acanthamoeba (Acant) +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ O
变形虫属 Amoeba (Amoeb) + B
Acrachnula (Acrac) + + + + F
粘虫属 Biomyxa (Biomy) ++ P
卡变虫属 Cashia (Cashi) + ++ + B+Y
指变虫属 Dactylamoeba (Dacty) ++ + P+A
刺变虫属 Echinamoeba (Echin) +++ ++++ +++ +++ +++ +++ B
丝变虫属 Filamoeba (Filam) ++ +++ ++ + B
拟斑瘤菌虫属 Guttulinopsis (Guttu) + +++ + B
哈氏虫属 Hartmannella (Hartm) + +++ ++ + ++ +++ B
马氏虫属 Mayorella (Mayor) ++ B+P+A
纳氏虫属 Naegleria (Naegl) + +++ +++ + + ++ B
核形虫属 Nuclearia (Nucle) +++ +++ + + F+A
副变虫属 Paramoeba (Param) ++ P+A
平变虫属 Platyamoeba (Platy) +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ B
多卓变虫属 Polychaos (Polyc) + P+A
根变虫属 Rhizamoeba (Rhiza) + + + P
囊变虫属 Saccamoeba (Sacca) ++ ++ +++ + + B
Stachyamoeba (Stach) + +++ + + ++ B
甲变虫属 Thecamoeba (Theca) +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ B+P
毛变虫属 Tricamoeba (Trica) ++ #
简变虫属 Vahlkampfia (Vahlk) +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ B
蒲变虫属 Vannella (Vanne) + ++ ++ B
杆变虫属 Vexillifera (Vexil) +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ ++ B

图2

长白山不同海拔梯度裸肉足虫群落丰度(a)、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(b)、Margalef丰富度指数(c)和Pielou均匀度指数(d)。不同字母表示在0.05水平上差异显著(n=5)。"

图3

不同海拔裸肉足虫属聚类分析树状图(以平方欧氏距离使用最近邻元素聚类法进行系统聚类)"

图4

裸肉足虫群落和土壤环境因子之间的典范对应分析排序图。(a)采样点和环境变量排序图; (b)裸肉足虫属与环境变量的排序图。 700 m; 1,000 m; 1,300 m; 1,600 m; 1,900 m; 2,200 m。对应的环境变量: TC: 全碳; TN: 全氮; C/N: 碳氮比; Altitude: 海拔; NH4+-N: 铵态氮。裸肉足虫属名缩写见表1。"

附图1

长白山部分土壤裸肉足虫照片。a-c: 甲变虫属; d, e: 简变虫属; f, g: 马氏虫属; h, i: 蒲变虫属; j: 平变虫属; k-m:棘变虫属; n: 刺变虫属。"

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