生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (6): 677-687.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.11088

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海南热带雨林次生林边缘至林内鸟类群落组成与功能集团比较

高建云1, 2, 吴兆录1, 张强2, 苏栋栋1, 2, 赵仁东3, 邹发生2, *()   

  1. 1 云南大学生态学与地植物学研究所, 昆明 650091
    2 广东省昆虫研究所/华南濒危动物研究所, 广州 510260
    3 海南猴猕岭省级自然保护区, 海南东方 572600
  • 收稿日期:2013-04-09 接受日期:2013-05-30 出版日期:2013-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 邹发生 E-mail:zoufs@gdei.gd.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31172067);广东省计划项目(2010B060200034)

Comparison of compositions and functional guilds of bird communities across an edge-interior gradient in secondary forest at Houmiling, Hainan Island, China

Jianyun Gao1, 2, Zhaolu Wu1, Qiang Zhang2, Dongdong Su1, 2, Rendong Zhao3, Fasheng Zou2, *()   

  1. 1 Institute of Ecology and Geobotany, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091
    2 Guangdong Entomological Institute/South China Institute of Endangered Animals, Guangzhou 510260
    3 Hainan Houmiling Nature Reserve, Dongfang, Hainan 572600
  • Received:2013-04-09 Accepted:2013-05-30 Online:2013-11-20
  • Contact: Zou Fasheng E-mail:zoufs@gdei.gd.cn

为探讨边缘效应对热带常绿季雨林鸟类群落的影响, 作者以海南猴猕岭省级自然保护区次生林为研究对象, 设置距离森林边缘0-100 m(边缘带)、101-300 m(中间带)、301-500 m(内部带)的距离梯度, 采用固定样点法和网捕法调查、比较其中的鸟类群落, 分析次生林由边缘至内部不同距离梯度中鸟类群落组成与功能集团的异同。2010至2012年调查期间共记录93种鸟类。不同距离梯度中每个样点记录的平均物种数和平均个体数均存在显著差异, 都是中间带最高、内部带次之、边缘带最低。森林专性种主要分布在中间带和内部带, 这些种的数量也显著高于边缘带; 森林广幅种主要分布在边缘带和中间带, 其数量以中间带最丰富; 非森林鸟类主要集中在边缘带, 其数量明显高于中间带和内部带。食果鸟以内部带最高、中间带次之、边缘带最低; 林下层食虫鸟、垂直层食虫鸟和食花蜜鸟在中间带最高、内部带次之、边缘带最低; 地面食虫鸟和杂食性鸟, 以边缘带最高、中间带次之、内部带最低; 食谷鸟主要分布在边缘带中, 中间带和内部带很少。食果鸟、食虫鸟和食花蜜鸟对森林的边缘敏感、逃避边缘栖息地, 而食谷鸟和杂食性鸟偏好边缘栖息地。总之, 边缘效应对海南岛森林鸟类多样性产生负效应。

关键词: 热带常绿季雨林, 次生林, 边缘效应, 鸟类群落, 功能集团, 海南猴猕岭

To understand edge effects on bird communities in a secondary-growth tropical rainforest, we examined how forest bird communities and different guilds change from the edge to the interior of a secondary forest at Houmiling Nature Reserve, Hainan. The study was conducted between August 2010 and September 2012, and used point counts and mist netting to survey birds at three sampling transects from the forest edge: 0-100 m (edge transect), 101-300 m (intermediate transect) and 301-500 m (interior transect). A total of 93 species were recorded. There were significant differences among the three sampling transects for mean species richness and mean number of individuals per point. Multiple comparisons revealed that species richness and individual abundance was highest in the intermediate transect and lowest in the edge transect. Species composition differed significantly from the edge to the interior transect. Intermediate and interior transects supported more forest-dependent species and forest generalists whose guilds were composed of frugivores, nectarivores and insectivores, which were sensitive to conditions at the forest edge. The edge transect harboured more open-habitat users, as well as a great number of granivores, ground insectivores and omnivores. In conclusion, forest edges have negative effects on bird diversity on Hainan Island, which should be borne in mind when developing strategies for forest bird conservation and habitat management.

Key words: tropical evergreen monsoon forest, secondary forest, edge effects, bird communities, bird compositions and functional guilds, Houmiling on Hainan Island

图1

海南岛猴猕岭自然保护区鸟类调查地点位置示意图"

图2

距森林边缘三个梯度带鸟类调查位置示意图"

图3

不同距离梯度中基于样点数据(a)和网捕数据(b)的物种累积稀疏曲线图"

图4

不同距离梯度每个样点的平均物种数和个体数(mean ± SE) (虚线左侧)及每张网的平均网捕率(mean ± SE) (虚线右侧)比较。柱状图上方的不同小写字母表示0.05水平上差异显著。"

图5

不同距离梯度的调查样点及样点法调查到的鸟类物种的PCA二维排序图(鸟种编号详见附录I)"

图6

不同距离梯度中森林依赖性类群(虚线左侧)以及生境利用集团(虚线右侧)在每个样点的平均个体数(mean ± SE)。FD、FG、NF分别表示森林专性种、森林广幅种、非森林鸟类; UB: 林下层利用集团; OHU: 开阔地利用集团; VPG: 垂直广泛层利用集团; GU: 地面活动集团; SU: 灌丛利用集团。柱状图上方的不同小写字母表示两者间在0.05水平上差异显著。"

图7

不同距离梯度中觅食食性集团每个样点的平均个体数(mean ± SE)。UI: 林下层食虫鸟; TI: 垂直层食虫鸟; N: 食花蜜鸟; F: 食果鸟; GI: 地面食虫鸟; O: 杂食性鸟; G: 食谷鸟。柱状图上方的不同小写字母表示两者间在0.05水平上差异显著。"

附录I

海南猴猕岭省级自然保护区鸟类名录(2010-2012)。表中每个物种样点记录栏的数据表示每个样点所记录的平均个体数(mean ± SE), 网捕栏数据表示每100网·时所捕到的鸟个体数。鸟种名称及排列顺序参考郑光美(2011)。"

编号
Codes
种名和学名
Common and scientific name
森林依赖性类群
ForDep 1
生境利用
集团
HabGui 2
觅食食性
集团
FeeGuil 3
样点记录 Point counts 网捕 Mist nets
边缘带
Edge band
n = 40
中间带
Intermediate band
n = 40
内部带
Interior band
n = 40
中间带
Intermediate band
n = 10
内部带
Interior band
n = 6
S1 苍鹭 Ardea cinerea NF OHU C 0.03 ± 0.03 0 0 0 0
S2 大白鹭 A. alba NF OHU C 0.30 ± 0.21 0 0 0 0
S3 白鹭 Egretta garzetta NF OHU C 0.15 ± 0.11 0 0 0 0
S4 牛背鹭 Bubulcus ibis NF OHU GI 0.15 ± 0.15 0 0 0 0
S5 海南山鹧鸪 Arborophila ardens FD GU O 0 0.08 ± 0.06 0.20 ± 0.12 0 0
S6 原鸡 Gallus gallus FD GU O 0.20 ± 0.15 0.20 ± 0.06 0.23 ± 0.08 0 0
S7 普通燕鸻 Glareola maldivarum NF OHU GI 0.15 ± 0.13 0 0 0 0
S8 白腰草鹬 Tringa ochropus NF OHU C 0.10 ± 0.10 0 0 0 0
S9 珠颈斑鸠 Streptopelia chinensis * NF OHU G 6.30 ± 1.35a 0.20 ± 0.07b 0.05 ± 0.05b 0 0
S10 绿翅金鸠 Chalcophaps indica FD VPG F 0 0 0.05 ± 0.03 0.074 0
S11 绿嘴地鹃 Phaenicophaeus tristis FG GU GI 0.35 ± 0.13 0.33 ± 0.12 0.20 ± 0.10 0.023 0
S12 褐翅鸦鹃 Centropus sinensis NF SU SI 0.08 ± 0.06 0 0 0 0
S13 小鸦鹃 C. bengalensis NF SU SI 0.05 ± 0.03 0 0 0 0
S14 红头咬鹃 Harpactes erythrocephalus FD VPG TI 0 0.03 ± 0.03 0.03 ± 0.03 0 0
S15 普通翠鸟 Alcedo atthis * NF OHU C 0.40 ± 0.13a 0b 0b 0 0
S16 白胸翡翠 Halcyon smyrnensis * NF OHU C 0.15 ± 0.07 0 0 0.023 0
S17 蓝须夜蜂虎 Nyctyornis athertoni FD VPG TI 0.35 ± 0.09 0.23 ± 0.08 0.35 ± 0.11 0 0
S18 三宝鸟 Eurystomus orientalis FG VPG TI 0.05 ± 0.05 0 0 0 0
S19 戴胜 Upupa epops NF OHU GI 0.05 ± 0.05 0 0 0 0
S20 黑眉拟啄木鸟 Megalaima oorti * FD VPG F 0b 0b 0.60 ± 0.12a 0 0
S21 栗啄木鸟 Celeus brachyurus FD VPG TI 0.05 ± 0.05 0.25 ± 0.11 0.03 ± 0.03 0.023 0.028
S22 黄嘴栗啄木鸟 Blythipicus pyrrhotis FD VPG TI 0.08 ± 0.06 0.10 ± 0.07 0.05 ± 0.05 0 0
S23 银胸丝冠鸟 Serilophus lunatus FD VPG TI 0 0 0.18 ± 0.18 0 0
S24 白鹡鸰 Motacilla alba * NF OHU GI 1.13 ± 0.32a 0.13 ± 0.08b 0.05 ± 0.05b 0 0
S25 灰鹡鸰 M. cinerea NF OHU GI 0.55 ± 0.20a 0.15 ± 0.05b 0.05 ± 0.03b 0 0.033
S26 树鹨 Anthus hodgsoni NF OHU GI 0.30 ± 0.15 0.18 ± 0.15 0.13 ± 0.09 0.027 0
S27 灰山椒鸟 Pericrocotus divaricatus ** FG VPG TI 0.25 ± 0.25 0 0 0 0
S28 赤红山椒鸟 P. flammeus * FG VPG TI 1.40 ± 0.68b 3.30 ± 0.63a 2.55 ± 0.53ab 0 0
S29 灰喉山椒鸟 P. solaris FG VPG TI 0 0 0.10 ± 0.10 0 0
S30 白头鹎 Pycnonotus sinensis * NF OHU O 18.95 ± 2.85a 4.83 ± 1.08b 2.23 ± 0.42b 2.49 0.17
S31 白喉冠鹎 Alophoixus pallidus * FD VPG F 0.65 ± 0.28b 3.38 ± 0.59a 3.08 ± 0.61a 0.05 0.538
S32 栗背短脚鹎 Hemixos castanonotus * FD VPG F 0b 1.00 ± 0.37b 5.30 ± 1.02a 0.023 0.099
S33 黑短脚鹎 Hypsipetes leucocephalus FD VPG F 0 0.15 ± 0.15 0.50 ± 0.35 0 0
S34 橙腹叶鹎 Chloropsis hardwickii * FD VPG TI 0b 0.05 ± 0.05b 0.33 ± 0.12a 0 0
S35 红尾伯劳 Lanius cristatus NF OHU TI 0 0.03 ± 0.03 0 0.027 0
S36 棕背伯劳 L. schach * NF OHU TI 1.40 ± 0.19a 0.08 ± 0.04b 0b 0.12 0
S37 黑卷尾 Dicrurus macrocercus FG VPG TI 0 0.10 ± 0.07 0 0 0
S38 灰卷尾 D. leucophaeus FG VPG TI 0.10 ± 0.10 0 0 0 0
S39 古铜色卷尾 D. aeneus FD VPG TI 0.05 ± 0.05 0.15 ± 0.08 0.25 ± 0.11 0 0
S40 大盘尾 D. paradiseus FD VPG TI 0.18 ± 0.09b 0.43 ± 0.14a 0.80 ± 0.23a 0.083 0.092
S41 八哥 Acridotheres cristatellus NF OHU GI 0.10 ± 0.07 0 0 0 0
S42 黄胸绿鹊 Cissa hypoleuca * FD VPG O 0b 0.43 ± 0.17a 0.10 ± 0.07ab 0.109 0
S43 灰树鹊 Dendrocitta formosae * FD VPG O 0.45 ± 0.19b 0.98 ± 0.22a 0.50 ± 0.14b 0.025 0
S44 红尾歌鸲 Luscinia sibilans FG GU GI 0 0 0 0.027 0.066
S45 红喉歌鸲 L. calliope FG GU GI 0 0 0 0.027 0
S46 蓝歌鸲 L. cyane FG GU GI 0 0 0 0 0.031
S47 红胁蓝尾鸲 Tarsiger cyanurus FG GU GI 0 0 0 0 0.033
S48 鹊鸲 Copsychus saularis * NF OHU GI 0.78 ± 0.17a 0.15 ± 0.08b 0b 0.023 0
S49 白腰鹊鸲 C. malabaricus FD GU GI 0.90 ± 0.20ab 1.33 ± 0.18a 0.60 ± 0.16b 1.119 0.639
S50 红尾水鸲 Rhyacornis fuliginosus NF GU GI 0 0 0 0.027 0
S51 黑喉石鵖 Saxicola torquata NF SU SI 0.10 ± 0.07 0 0 0 0
S52 蓝矶鸫 Monticola solitarius NF GU GI 0.05 ± 0.03 0 0 0 0
S53 橙头地鸫 Zoothera citrina FD GU GI 0 0.20 ± 0.10 0.03 ± 0.03 0.12 0.544
S54 乌灰鸫 Turdus cardis FG GU GI 0 0 0 0.053 0
S55 乌鸫 T. merula NF GU GI 0 0.03 ± 0.03 0 0.058 0
S56 北灰鹟 Muscicapa dauurica * FG VPG TI 0.20 ± 0.10 0.03 ± 0.03 0 0 0
S57 白眉姬鹟 Ficedula zanthopygia FG SU SI 0 0 0 0.049 0
S58 鸲姬鹟 F. mugimaki FG VPG TI 0.10 ± 0.05 0.23 ± 0.12 0 0 0.033
S59 红喉姬鹟 F. albicilla FG SU SI 0 0 0 0 0.033
S60 棕胸蓝姬鹟 F. hyperythra FD SU SI 0 0 0 0.023 0.113
S61 海南蓝仙鹟 Cyornis hainanus * FD UB UI 0.30 ± 0.08b 1.15 ± 0.19a 0.68 ± 0.16b 0.428 0.193
S62 白喉扇尾鹟 Rhipidura albicollis * FD UB UI 0.40 ± 0.15b 2.20 ± 0.29a 1.90 ± 0.40a 0.314 0.727
S63 黑枕王鹟 Hypothymis azurea * FD UB UI 0.03 ± 0.03b 0.43 ± 0.13ab 0.63 ± 0.23a 0.244 0
S64 寿带 Terpsiphone paradisi FD UB UI 0 0 0 0.027 0
S65 小黑领噪鹛 Garrulax monileger FD UB UI 3.40 ± 1.10 5.48 ± 1.35 4.95 ± 1.40 0.806 0.175
S66 黑领噪鹛 G. pectoralis FD UB UI 3.45 ± 1.12 5.58 ± 1.33 4.70 ± 1.45 0.053 0.094
S67 褐胸噪鹛 G. maesi * FD UB UI 0.50 ± 0.23b 4.20 ± 0.81a 4.08 ± 0.77a 0 0.087
S68 黑喉噪鹛 G. chinensis FD UB UI 2.03 ± 0.50 2.63 ± 0.56 2.23 ± 0.52 0.209 0.028
S69 长嘴钩嘴鹛 Pomatorhinus hypoleucos * FD UB UI 0b 0.95 ± 0.30a 1.05 ± 0.25a 0 0.087
S70 棕颈钩嘴鹛 P. ruficollis * FD UB UI 0.23 ± 0.15b 3.08 ± 0.64a 2.13 ± 0.58a 0.027 0.09
S71 红头穗鹛 Stachyris ruficeps * FD UB TI 0.35 ± 0.21b 2.78 ± 0.56a 2.98 ± 0.55a 0.023 0.09
S72 斑颈穗鹛 S. striolata FD UB UI 0 0.05 ± 0.05 0.20 ± 0.10 0 0.066
S73 栗额鵙鹛 Pteruthius aenobarbus FD VPG TI 0 0.05 ± 0.05 0 0 0
S74 褐顶雀鹛 Alcippe brunnea * FD UB UI 0b 0.63 ± 0.25a 0.98 ± 0.29a 0 0.198
S75 灰眶雀鹛 A. morrisonia * FD UB UI 3.85 ± 1.37b 19.58 ± 2.93a 13.33 ± 2.79a 1.32 1.672
S76 白腹凤鹛 Erpornis zantholeuca * FD VPG TI 1.00 ± 0.47b 6.20 ± 0.93a 5.90 ± 1.14a 0.023 0.105
S77 灰头鸦雀 Paradoxornis gularis FG VPG TI 0 0.45 ± 0.45 0.50 ± 0.37 0 0
S78 黄腹山鹪莺 Prinia flaviventris * NF SU SI 0.63 ± 0.15a 0.03 ± 0.03b 0b 0 0
S79 鳞头树莺 Urosphena squameiceps FG UB TI 0 0.03 ± 0.03 0 0.08 0.066
S80 褐柳莺 Phylloscopus fuscatus * FG SU TI 0.10 ± 0.05 0.10 ± 0.06 0 0 0
S81 黄眉柳莺 P. inornatus FG VPG TI 0.35 ± 0.10 0.53 ± 0.14 0.50 ± 0.11 0.085 0.066
S82 极北柳莺 P. borealis * FG VPG TI 0a 0.38 ± 0.12b 0.40 ± 0.17ab 0.051 0
S83 双斑绿柳莺 P. plumbeitarsus FG VPG TI 0 0.13 ± 0.13 0.03 ± 0.03 0.08 0
S84 淡脚柳莺 P. tenellipes FG VPG TI 0.05 ± 0.03 0.13 ± 0.06 0.18 ± 0.10 0.078 0
S85 红胁绣眼鸟 Zosterops erythropleurus FG VPG TI 0 0.05 ± 0.05 0 0 0
S86 暗绿绣眼鸟 Z. japonicus * FG VPG TI 3.38 ± 0.86b 5.85 ± 1.00a 3.53 ± 0.75ab 0.08 0
S87 大山雀 Parus major * FG VPG TI 1.08 ± 0.30a 0.58 ± 0.17a 0b 0 0
S88 纯色啄花鸟 Dicaeum concolor FG VPG N 0 0.45 ± 0.31 0.05 ± 0.05 0 0
S89 朱背啄花鸟 D. cruentatum FG VPG N 0.75 ± 0.17ab 1.20 ± 0.36a 0.48 ± 0.12b 0.078 0.033
S90 黄腹花蜜鸟 Cinnyris jugularis FG VPG N 1.73 ± 0.39 2.73 ± 0.44 2.65 ± 0.45 0.05 0.028
S91 叉尾太阳鸟 Aethopyga christinae * FG VPG N 0.03 ± 0.03b 0.65 ± 0.19a 1.03 ± 0.24a 0 0
S92 白腰文鸟 Lonchura striata * NF OHU G 7.00 ± 1.54a 0b 0b 0 0
S93 斑文鸟 L. punctulata * NF OHU G 2.30 ± 0.89a 0b 0b 0 0
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