生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (5): 590-600.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.11044

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入侵植物黄花刺茄在新疆不同生境中的繁殖特性

邱娟1, 地里努尔·沙里木1, 2, 谭敦炎1, *   

  1. 1 新疆农业大学草业与环境科学学院, 新疆草地资源与生态重点实验室及西部干旱荒漠区草地资源与生态教育部重点实验室, 乌鲁木齐 830052
    2 北京林业大学生物科学与技术学院, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2013-02-20 接受日期:2013-07-01 出版日期:2013-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 谭敦炎
  • 基金项目:
    新疆维吾尔自治区自然科学基金(2010211B07);国家重点基础研究发展计划(2010CB134510)

Reproductive characteristics of the invasive species Solanum rostratum in different habitats of Xinjiang, China

Juan Qiu1, Dilinuer Shalimu1, 2, Dunyan Tan1, *   

  1. 1 Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Grassland Resources and Ecology & Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Western Arid Region Grassland Resource and Ecology, College of Grassland and Environment Sciences, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052
    2 College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
  • Received:2013-02-20 Accepted:2013-07-01 Online:2013-09-20
  • Contact: Tan Dunyan

外来植物的入侵与其繁殖特性密切相关, 比较外来植物在不同生境中的繁殖特性将为揭示其入侵的最适生境及其入侵机制并制定合理的管理策略提供理论依据。黄花刺茄(Solanum rostratum)是一种原产新热带区和美国西南部、仅进行有性繁殖的一年生杂草, 已在中国新疆等7个省/市成功入侵。本文对黄花刺茄在新疆绿洲、荒漠草原和砾质荒漠中的有性繁殖特性进行了研究, 旨在比较该物种在不同生境中的繁殖能力, 明确其在新疆入侵的最适生境。结果表明: (1)黄花刺茄单花开放持续时间为27-47 h。3种生境中植株每天开花时间和单花开放持续时间基本相同, 但开花数/株表现为绿洲>荒漠草原>砾石荒漠, 生境间存在极显著差异(P<0.01)。(2)3种生境中黄花刺茄的传粉昆虫均为四条隧蜂(Halictus quadricinctus)、隧蜂(Halictus sp.)和扁柄木蜂(Xylocopa latipes), 且均为蜂振传粉。其中, 扁柄木蜂的访花次数极少。(3) 3种生境中传粉昆虫的总访花频率表现为绿洲>荒漠草原>砾石荒漠, 彼此间均存在显著差异(P<0.05)。四条隧蜂喜好低温高湿环境, 而隧蜂偏好高温低湿环境, 四条隧蜂的日访花高峰期早于隧蜂。(4) 3种生境中黄花刺茄的结实数/株、结籽数/果实、结籽数/株及种子千粒重表现为绿洲>荒漠草原>砾石荒漠, 且结实数/株与开花数/株及传粉昆虫的总访花频率均呈极显著正相关, 结籽数/果实和结籽数/株与总访花频率均呈显著正相关。这些结果说明: 在新疆干旱区, 绿洲是黄花刺茄入侵的最适生境。黄花刺茄在绿洲中可获得较多的资源, 形成较多的花以吸引更多的传粉昆虫, 并产生较多且千粒重较大的种子。

关键词: 开花, 结实/结籽特性, 入侵植物, 传粉昆虫, Solanum rostratum, 新疆

The invasiveness of alien plants is closely related to their reproductive characteristics. A comparison of reproductive characteristics of an alien species in different habitats will help to reveal its optimum habitat for invasion and the mechanism of invasion. Furthermore, it will provide a theoretical foundation for planning a reasonable management strategy. Solanum rostratum is a summer annual weed native to the neotropics and the southwestern USA that produces offspring only by sexual reproduction. This species has become established in seven provinces/cities of China, including Xinjiang. We compared reproductive characteristics of S. rostratum in oasis, desert grassland and gravel desert habitats in Xinjiang and determined the optimum habitat for its invasion. The results were as follows. (1) Single-flower duration of S. rostratum was between 27 and 47 hours. Daily flowering time and single-flower duration were similar among the three habitats. However, number of flowers per individual differed among habitats (P<0.01=: oasis > desert grassland > gravel desert. (2) Halictus quadricinctus, Halictus sp. and Xylocopa latipes were the pollinators of S. rostratum, and all of them buzz-pollinated flowers. However, X. latipes visited flowers only occasionally. (3) Total visiting frequency of pollinators differed among habitats (P<0.05): oasis > desert grassland > gravel desert. Halictus quadricinctus preferred habitats with relatively low temperatures and high humidity, while another species of Halictus preferred relatively high temperatures and low humidity. Thus, the daily time of the peak of visiting frequency of H. quadricinctus was earlier than that of Halictus sp. (4) Order of number of fruits per individual, seed number per fruit and per individual and mass of 1,000 seeds was oasis > desert grassland > gravel desert. Fruit number per individual was highly significantly positively correlated with both number of flowers per individual and total visiting frequency of pollinators. Seed numbers per individual and per fruit were significantly positively correlated with total visiting frequency of pollinators. Our study indicates that S. rostratum can obtain more resources, produce more flowers that attract pollinators and produce more seeds with larger mass in oases than in desert grassland or gravel desert. Therefore, the oasis is the optimum habitat of S. rostratum in the arid region of Xinjiang, China.

Key words: flowering, fruit and seed set characteristics, invasive species, pollinator, Solanum rostratum, Xinjiang

表1

观测地点的地理位置和生境特征"

生境
Habitat
观测地点
Observation sites
地理坐标
Coordinate
海拔
Elevation
(m)
居群面积
Population
area (m2)
居群密度
Population density
(ind./m2)
土壤类型
Soil type
主要植被
Main vegetation
荒漠草原
Desert grassland
乌鲁木齐县萨尔达坂乡白土窑煤矿附近
Vicinity of Baituyao colliery, Saerdaban countryside of Urumqi County, Xinjiang
43°43′ N, 87°17′ E 1,140 210 2.8 棕钙土
Brown calcic soil
木地肤(Kochia prostrate)灰藜(Chenopodium glaucum)椭圆叶天芥菜(Heliotropium ellipticum)、白茎绢蒿(Seriphidium terrae-albae)等
砾石荒漠
Gravel desert
昌吉市硫磺沟镇养路段附近
Vicinity of the platelayer station, Liuhuanggou Town of Changji City, Xinjiang
43°45′ N, 87°13′ E 1,010 300 0.9 灰棕荒漠土
Grey brown desert soil
萹蓄(Polygonum aviculare)香藜(Chenopodium botrys)叉毛蓬(Petrosimonia sibirica)地肤(Kochia scoparia)、腋花苋(Amaranthus roxburghianus)中亚天仙子(Hyoscyamus pusillus)、狗尾草(Setaria viridis)
绿洲
Oasis
昌吉市三工镇春光大队
Chunguang village, Sangong town of Changji City, Xinjiang
43°88′ N,
87°24′ E
770 300 3.6 灰漠土
Gray desert soil
大翅蓟(Onopordon acanthium)、萹蓄(Polygonum aviculare)香藜(Chenopodium botrys)骆驼蓬(Peganum harmala)凹头苋(Amaranthus lividus)中亚天仙子(Hyoscyamus pusillus)

图1

黄花刺茄的传粉昆虫。(A)四条隧蜂; (B)隧蜂; (C)扁柄木蜂。"

图2

2009和2010年3种生境中黄花刺茄传粉昆虫的总访花频率。图中大写字母表示同一生境不同年份间的比较, 小写字母表示同一年份不同生境间的比较, 不同字母的值表示在0.05水平上存在显著差异。"

图3

3种生境中传粉昆虫日访花频率及环境温度/湿度日变化曲线(平均值±标准误)"

表2

2009和2010年3种生境中黄花刺茄的结实结籽特性(平均值±标准差)"

年份
Year
生境
Habitat
结实数/株
No. of fruits per individual
(n =20)
结籽数/果实
No. of seeds per fruit
(n =50)
结籽数/株
No. of seeds per individual (n =20)
千粒重
Mass (g) of 1,000 seeds (n =10)
2009 绿洲 Oasis 96 ± 38.62 60 ± 8 4,354 ± 1750 3.29 ± 0.05
荒漠草原 Desert grassland 62 ± 5.91 56 ± 10 3,911 ± 250 3.22 ± 0.06
砾石荒漠 Gravel desert 44 ± 5.31 55 ± 11 1,837 ± 218 3.10 ± 0.07
2010 绿洲 Oasis 97 ± 13.02 63 ± 11 4,694 ± 62 3.34 ± 0.02
荒漠草原 Desert grassland 63 ± 8.55 62 ± 9 2,927 ± 393 3.26 ± 0.47
砾石荒漠 Gravel desert 25 ± 5.74 55 ± 8 1,053 ± 235 3.01 ± 0.28
F1 16.586** 2.595 13.352** 14.340**
F2 23.987** 0.489 88.596** 29.992**
F3 116.283** 0.081 118.989** 83.398**
F4 3.970* 3.970* 34.136** 3.970**
F5 7.729* 9.439** 330.969** 454.534**

表3

2009和2010年3种生境中黄花刺茄结实/结籽数与总访花频率的相关分析"

年份
Year
生境
Habitat
结实数/株
No. of fruits per individual
结籽数/果实
No. of seeds per fruit
结籽数/株
No. of seeds per individual
2009 绿洲 Oasis 0.460** 0.368* 0.374*
荒漠草原 Desert grassland 0.527** 0.354* 0.382*
砾石荒漠 Gravel desert 0.488** 0.380* 0.362*
2010 绿洲 Oasis 0.497** 0.339* 0.334*
荒漠草原 Desert grassland 0.486** 0.328* 0.365*
砾石荒漠 Gravel desert 0.462** 0.332* 0.357*
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