生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (5): 537-546.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.10009

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莱州湾游泳动物群落种类组成及多样性

李凡, 张焕君, 吕振波*(), 徐炳庆, 郑亮   

  1. 山东省海洋水产研究所, 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室, 山东烟台 264006
  • 收稿日期:2013-01-07 接受日期:2013-06-06 出版日期:2013-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 吕振波 E-mail:ytlvzhenbo@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    海洋公益性行业科研专项经费项目(200905019);山东省海洋生态环境与防灾减灾重点实验室开放基金项目(2011015);“水生动物营养与饲料‘泰山学者’岗位”经费

Species composition and community diversity of nekton in Laizhou Bay, China

Fan Li, Huanjun Zhang, Zhenbo Lü*(), Bingqing Xu, Liang Zheng   

  1. Shandong Marine and Fishery Research Institute, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Restoration for Marine Ecology, Yantai, Shandong 264006
  • Received:2013-01-07 Accepted:2013-06-06 Online:2013-09-20
  • Contact: Lü Zhenbo E-mail:ytlvzhenbo@163.com

为了解莱州湾海域游泳动物群落现状及变化, 作者于2010-2011年春季(5月)、夏季(8月)、秋季(10月)和冬季(12月)在该海域进行了8航次底拖网调查, 对游泳动物的种类组成、优势种与多样性进行了研究。调查共捕获游泳动物85种, 包括鱼类55种、甲壳类25种、头足类5种; 鲈形目最多(28种), 十足目(24种)次之。游泳动物种数存在明显的季节变化, 主要是鱼类种数变化引起的, 甲壳类和头足类种数季节变化较小。优势种分析表明, 目前莱州湾中上层鱼类以青鳞小沙丁鱼(Sardinella zunasi)、斑鰶(Konosirus punctatus)和赤鼻棱鳀(Thryssa kammalensis)为主, 底层鱼类以矛尾虾虎鱼(Chaeturichthys stigmatias)、斑尾刺虾虎鱼(Acanthogobius ommaturus)和短吻红舌鳎(Cynoglossus joyneri)为主, 甲壳类以口虾蛄(Orgtosaquilla oratoria)、日本虫寻(Charybdis japonica)和日本褐虾(Crangon hakodatei)为主, 头足类以枪乌贼(Loliolus sp.)为主。枪乌贼、矛尾虾虎鱼、斑鰶在2年调查中均为优势种, 鳀(Engraulis japonicus)已不再是莱州湾的优势种类。Shannon-Wiener指数夏季最高, 冬季最低, 其季节间差异显著(F=6.003, P<0.001), 而年间差异不显著(t=0.446, P=0.657>0.05); 调查海域西南部的站位Shannon-Wiener指数较低, 而东北部则较高。自20世纪50年代末以来, 莱州湾游泳动物种数特别是鱼类种数呈下降趋势, 目前, 软骨鱼类及硬骨鱼类中的河口种、溯河洄游种、大型经济种、鲆蝶类和东方鲀类等种数已显著减少; 群落优势种沿带鱼(Trichiurus lepturus)、黄鲫(Setipinna taty)、鳀、赤鼻棱鳀、枪乌贼不断向更小型化的方向演替。增殖放流种类在调查中均有渔获, 仅鮻(Liza haematocheilus)于2010年冬季成为该季节优势种, 表明增殖放流活动并未较大程度改变莱州湾游泳动物群落结构。目前夏季是游泳动物群落的Shannon-Wiener指数最高的季节, 也略高于1982-2006年调查结果, 可能与伏季休渔政策保护了当年生幼鱼有关。

关键词: 莱州湾, 游泳动物, 种类组成, 优势种, 多样性

Based on trawls conducted in Laizhou Bay, China (119°05′-120°00′ E, 37°12′-37°40′ N), in 2010 and 2011, an analysis was made of changes in species composition, dominant species and community diversity of nekton. A total of 85 species were identified, which included 55 fish, 25 crustaceans and 5 cephalopod species. The most species-rich orders were Perciformes (28 species) and Decapoda (24 species). There was obvious seasonal variation in nekton number, mostly influenced by the number of fishes. Sardinella zunasi, Konosirus punctatus and Thryssa kammalensis were the main pelagic fishes in Laizhou Bay, Chaeturichthys stigmatias, Acanthogobius ommaturus and Cynoglossus joyneri were the main bottom fishes, Orgtosaquilla oratoria, Charybdis japonica and Crangon hakodatei were the main crustaceans, while squid (Loliolus sp.) represented the main cephalopods. Loliolus sp., Chaeturichthys stigmatias and Konosirus punctatus were the dominant species in both 2010 and 2011 and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index was highest in summer and lowest in winter. The Shannon-Wiener index was also higher in the north-east area and lower in the south-west. Since the late 1950s, nekton number, especially of fish, has significantly declined due to human activities and climate change impacts. This is particularly true for cartilaginous fish, estuarine species, river-migratory species, large-scale economic fish, flatfish and takifugu. In parallel, dominant species, such as Trichiurus lepturus, Setipinna taty, Engraulis japonicus, Thryssa kammalensis have been replaced by smaller nekton.

Key words: the Laizhou bay, nekton, species composition, dominant species, diversity

图1

莱州湾调查站位图"

图2

莱州湾游泳动物种数季节变化"

表1

莱州湾游泳动物主要种类组成"

调查年份
Survey year
季节
Season
种类
Species
生态优势度
IRI
重量百分比
W%
尾数百分比
N%
2010 春季 Spring 日本褐虾 Crangon hakodatei 6,900 23.1 49.6
日本鼓虾 Alpheus japonicus 2,492 10.7 17.0
Platycephalus indicus 1,194 14.4 0.5
葛氏长臂虾 Palaemon gravieri 1,043 6.8 8.1
夏季 Summer 斑鰶 Konosirus punctatus 6,608 31.7 34.3
枪乌贼 Loliolus sp. 2,524 11.6 13.7
矛尾虾虎鱼 Chaeturichthys stigmatias 2,326 8.0 15.2
口虾蛄 Orgtosaquilla oratoria 1,780 9.9 9.9
蓝点马鲛 Scomberomorus niphonius 1,145 11.1 1.7
秋季 Autumn 枪乌贼 Loliolus sp. 5,542 17.1 38.4
口虾蛄 Orgtosaquilla oratoria 2,300 16.7 8.9
矛尾虾虎鱼 Chaeturichthys stigmatias 1,631 8.3 8.0
斑尾刺虾虎鱼 Acanthogobius ommaturus 1,578 11.2 4.6
Liza haematocheilus 1,119 23.5 13.8
冬季 Winter 斑尾刺虾虎鱼 Acanthogobius ommaturus 5,897 45.0 17.2
矛尾虾虎鱼 Chaeturichthys stigmatias 2,563 18.3 10.4
脊尾白虾 Exopalaemon carinicauda 1,871 5.4 24.2
口虾蛄 Orgtosaquilla oratoria 1,731 13.4 6.0
日本褐虾 Crangon hakodatei 1,448 0.8 13.7
Liza haematocheilus 1,239 7.0 6.8
全年 Total year 枪乌贼 Loliolus sp. 2,145 11.0 15.4
矛尾虾虎鱼 Chaeturichthys stigmatias 2,115 9.3 12.7
口虾蛄 Orgtosaquilla oratoria 1,653 11.4 8.7
斑鰶 Konosirus punctatus 1,624 21.6 22.6
斑尾刺虾虎鱼 Acanthogobius ommaturus 1,072 10.0 4.8
2011 春季 Spring 日本褐虾 Crangon hakodatei 3,551 5.6 31.8
枪乌贼 Loliolus sp. 2,822 12.9 15.3
赤鼻棱鳀 Thryssa kammalensis 2,015 18.3 10.5
葛氏长臂虾 Palaemon gravieri 1,623 4.4 12.7
绯鱼衔 Callionymus beniteguri 1,311 7.2 6.6
夏季 Summer 斑鰶 Konosirus punctatus 6,908 36.1 33.0
矛尾虾虎鱼 Chaeturichthys stigmatias 2,962 8.3 21.4
枪乌贼 Loliolus sp. 1,448 6.8 7.7
口虾蛄 Orgtosaquilla oratoria 1,357 9.7 6.3
青鳞小沙丁鱼 Sardinella zunasi 1,240 3.1 9.3
日本虫寻 Charybdis japonica 1,167 9.5 2.2
秋季 Autumn 青鳞小沙丁鱼 Sardinella zunasi 7,096 39.2 44.3
赤鼻棱鳀 Thryssa kammalensis 3,362 10.1 31.9
矛尾虾虎鱼 Chaeturichthys stigmatias 1,892 13.5 6.5
枪乌贼 Loliolus sp. 1,869 8.3 10.4
冬季 Winter 日本褐虾 Crangon hakodatei 6,001 8.8 51.2
斑尾刺虾虎鱼 Acanthogobius ommaturus 5,141 46.3 5.1
矛尾虾虎鱼 Chaeturichthys stigmatias 1,010 11.4 3.1
全年 Total year 青鳞小沙丁鱼 Sardinella zunasi 2,418 15.8 27.2
斑鰶 Konosirus punctatus 1,967 22.5 11.7
矛尾虾虎鱼 Chaeturichthys stigmatias 1,715 9.7 10.7
赤鼻棱鳀 Thryssa kammalensis 1,370 5.1 18.7
枪乌贼 Loliolus sp. 1,289 7.4 9.3

表2

2010-2011年莱州湾游泳动物主要种类特征"

种类
Species
平均个体重量
Average body weight
经济价值
Economic value
个体大小
Body size
营养级
Tropic level
(杨纪明, 2001; Froese & Pauly, 2011)
赤鼻棱鳀 Thryssa kammalensis 1.8 D I 3.1
斑鰶 Konosirus punctatus 9.0 B II 2.9
青鳞小沙丁鱼 Sardinella zunasi 3.2 C I 3.1
Liza haematocheilus 12.9 A V 2.5
Platycephalus indicus 11.6 C IV 3.6
绯鱼衔 Callionymus beniteguri 3.9 D I 3.3
斑尾刺虾虎鱼 Acanthogobius ommaturus 14.6 D II 3.0
矛尾虾虎鱼 Chaeturichthys stigmatias 5.3 D I 3.3
蓝点马鲛 Scomberomorus niphonius 66.3 A V 4.5
短吻红舌鳎 Cynoglossus joyneri 10.0 B II 3.5
口虾蛄 Orgtosaquilla oratoria 12.3 C I 3.7
日本鼓虾 Alpheus japonicus 1.9 D I 3.5
日本褐虾 Crangon hakodatei 0.9 C I 3.2
脊尾白虾 Exopalaemon carinicauda 2.0 B I 3.7
葛氏长臂虾 Palaemon gravieri 1.2 C I 3.6
隆线强蟹 Eucrata crenata 13.5 D I 3.2
三疣梭子蟹 Portunus trituberculatus 36.8 A II 3.2
日本虫寻 Charybdis japonica 34.9 C I 3.9
枪乌贼 Loliolus sp. 4.9 C I 4.1

图3

莱州湾游泳动物Shannon-Wiener指数的季节变化。相同小写字母代表处理间差异不显著(P>0.05)。"

图4

莱州湾游泳动物群落Shannon-Wiener指数的时空分布"

图5

莱州湾各站位游泳动物Shannon-Wiener指数。图中数字代表调查季节编码: 1为2010年5月, 2为2010年8月, 3为2010年10月, 4为2010年12月, 5为2011年5月, 6为2011年8月, 7为2011年10月, 8为2011年12月。■为该站位历次调查平均值。"

图6

莱州湾游泳动物群落Shannon-Wiener指数的年际变化(1982-2011)。*数据来自邓景耀和金显仕, 2000; **数据来自山东省海洋与渔业厅, 2010。"

附录I

2010-2011年调查莱州湾游泳动物种类名录"

种类 Species 出现站位数 Occurring stations of species
201005a 201008 a 201010 a 201012b 201105 a 201108 a 201110 a 201112 a
真鲨目 Carcharhiniformes
皱唇鲨科 Triakidae
白斑星鲨 Mustelus manazo
皱唇鲨 Triakis scyllium
鳐目 Pristiformes
犁头鳐科 Rhinobatidae
中国团扇鳐 Platyrhina sinensis
鳐科 Rajidae
斑鳐 Okamejei kenojei
美鳐 Raja pulchra
鲼目 Myliobatiformes
魟科 Dasyatidae
中国魟 Dasyatis sinensis
鳗鲡目 Anguilliformes
鳗鲡科 Anguillidae
日本鳗鲡 Anguilla japonica
海鳗科 Muraenesocidae
海鳗 Muraenesox cinereus
康吉鳗科 Congridae
星康吉鳗 C. myriaster
鲱形目 Clupeiformes
锯腹鳓科 Pristigasteridae
Ilisha elongata
鳀科 Engraulidae
凤鲚 Coilia mystus
刀鲚 C. nasus
*鳀 Engraulis japonicus 6 2 1
*黄鲫 Setipinna taty 8 6 3 3 6
*赤鼻棱鳀 Thryssa kammalensis 3 12 7 14 16 16
*中颌棱鳀 T. mystax 5 4 1
鲱科 Clupeidae
太平洋鲱 Clupea pallasii
*斑鰶 Konosirus punctatus 1 20 8 11 20 15
*青鳞小沙丁鱼 Sardinella zunasi 2 5 4 8 20 17
南美拟沙丁鱼 S. sagax
鲑形目 Salmoniformes
胡瓜鱼科 Osmeridae
*安氏新银鱼 Neosalanx anderssoni 6 2 13
中国大银鱼 Protosalanx chinensis
*有明银鱼 Salanx ariakensis 3
狗母鱼科 Synodontidae
*长蛇鲻 Saurida elongata 11 2 1 8
鳕形目 Gadiformes
鳕科 Gadidae
太平洋鳕 Gadus macrocephalus
鮟鱇目 Lophiiformes
鮟鱇科 Lophiidae
黄鮟鱇 Lophius litulon
鲻形目 Mugiliformes
鲻科 Mugilidae
*鮻 Liza haematocheilus 6 17 15
*鲻 Mugil cephalus 1
银汉鱼目 Atheriniformes
银汉鱼科 Atherinidae
凡氏银汉鱼 Hypoatherina valenciennei
真燕鳐 Cheilopogon agoo
颌针鱼目 Beloniformes
鱵科 Hemiramphidae
日本下鱵鱼 Hyporhamphus sajori
颌针鱼科 Belonidae
尖嘴柱颌针鱼 Strongylura anastomella
刺鱼目 Gasterosteiformes
海龙科 Syngnathidae
*莫氏海马 H. mohnikei 3 2 5 2 1
*尖海龙 Syngnathus acus 5 2 3
鲉形目 Scorpaeniformes
鲉科 Scorpaenidae
铠平鲉 Sebastes hubbsi
*许氏平鲉 S. schlegelii 3 4 3 2 3
汤氏平鲉 S. thompsoni
鲂鮄科 Triglidae
短鳍红娘鱼 Lepidotrigla microptera
鲬科 Platycephalidae
*鲬 Platycephalus indicus 16 18 12 14 19 18
六线鱼科 Hexagrammidae
斑头六线鱼 Hexagrammos agrammus
*大泷六线鱼 H. otakii 4 1 7 2 1
杜父鱼科 Cottidae
小杜父鱼 Cottiusculus gonez
*松江鲈 Trachidermus fasciatus 2 3
狮子鱼科 Liparidae
网纹狮子鱼 Liparis chefuensis
*细纹狮子鱼 L. tanakae 1 2
鲈形目 Perciformes
狼鲈科 Moronidae
*花鲈 Lateolabrax japonicus 1 1 1 2 1
天竺鲷科 Apogonidae
*细条天竺鲷 Apogon lineatus 3 3
鱚科 Sillaginidae
*多鳞鱚 S. sihama 7 9 8 10
鲹科 Carangidae
沟鲹 Atropus atropos
石鲈科 Haemulidae
斜带髭鲷 Hapalogenys nigripinnis
花尾胡椒鲷 Plectorhinchus cinctus
鲷科 Sparidae
*黑棘鲷 Acanthopagrus schlegelii 8 1 2 10 3
*真鲷 Pagrus major 2 1
马鲅科 Polynemidae
四指马鲅 Eleutheronema tetradactylum
石首鱼科 Sciaenidae
棘头梅童鱼 Collichthys lucidus
黑鳃梅童鱼 C. niveatus
*皮氏叫姑鱼 Johnius belangerii 5 9 7 10 11 8
*小黄鱼 L. polyactis 6 5 4 9
Miichthys niiuy
黄姑鱼 Nibea albiflora
*银姑鱼 Pennahia argentata 15 4 19 6
绵鳚科 Zoarcidae
绵鳚 Zoarces elongatus 1
线鳚科 Stichaeidae
*日本眉鳚 Chirolophis japonicus 2
锦鳚科 Pholidae
*方氏锦鳚 Pholis fangi 20 1 6 5 13 4 2
云鳚 P. nebulosa
玉筋鱼科 Ammodytidae
玉筋鱼 Ammodytes personatus
鱼衔科 Callionymidae
*绯鱼衔 Callionymus beniteguri 15
虾虎鱼科 Gobiidae
*斑尾刺虾虎鱼 Acanthogobius ommaturus 19 20 18 13 18 19 20
*黄鳍刺虾虎鱼 A. flavimanus 1 16
*乳色刺虾虎鱼 A. lactipes 6
*六丝钝尾虾虎鱼 Amblychaeturichthys hexanema 2 5 7 7
*矛尾虾虎鱼 Chaeturichthys stigmatias 19 20 20 17 14 20 19 14
*中华栉孔虾虎鱼 Ctenotrypauchen chinensis 11 3 5 5 11 1 6
*裸项蜂巢虾虎鱼 Favonigobius gymnauchen 4
*普氏细棘虾虎鱼 Acentrogobius pflaumii 14 6 8 5
睛尾蝌蚪虾虎鱼 Lophiogobius ocellicauda
*长丝虾虎鱼 Myersina filifer 1 1 2
*拉氏狼牙虾虎鱼 Odontamblyopus lacepedii 5 1 3 2 4 2
*髭缟虾虎鱼 Tridentiger barbatus 3 1 6 16 5 4 6 11
暗缟虾虎鱼 T. obscurus
*纹缟虾虎鱼 T. trigonocephalus 1 14 4 14
魣科 Sphyraenidae
油魣 Sphyraena pinguis
带鱼科 Trichiuridae
*带鱼 Trichiurus lepturus 1
*小带鱼 Eupleurogrammus muticus 5 11 10 6
鲭科 Scombridae
Scomber japonicus
朝鲜马鲛 Scomberomorus koreanus
*蓝点马鲛 S. niphonius 18 1 20 2
鲳科 Stromateidae
*银鲳 Pampus argenteus 1 2 1 3 2
翎鲳 P. punctatissimus
鲽形目 Pleuronectiformes
牙鲆科 Paralichthyidae
*褐牙鲆 aralichthys olivaceus 5 4 2 5 4
桂皮斑鲆 Pseudorhombus cinnamoneus
鲽科 Pleuronectidae
高眼鲽 Cleisthenes herzensteini
虫鲽 Eopsetta grigorjewi
*石鲽 Kareius bicoloratus 5 13 4 7 8 1
角木叶鲽 Pleuronichthys cornutus
*钝吻黄盖鲽 P. yokohamae 5 2 1 1
长鲽 Tanakius kitaharae
圆斑星鲽 Verasper variegates
舌鳎科 Cynoglossidae
*短吻红舌鳎 Cynoglossus joyneri 16 19 16 11 18 19 17 9
*半滑舌鳎 C. semilaevis 1 1 2
鲀形目 Tetraodontiformes
三刺鲀科 Triacanthidae
三刺鲀 Triacanthus biaculeatus
单角鲀科 Monacanthidae
*绿鳍马面鲀 Thamnaconus modestus 1
鲀科 Tetraodontidae
*淡鳍兔头鲀 Lagocephalus wheeleri 3
铅点东方鲀 Takifugu alboplumbeus
墨绿东方鲀 T. basilevskianus
*暗纹东方鲀 T. fasciatus 1
菊黄东方鲀 T. flavidus
星点东方鲀 T. niphobles
豹纹东方鲀 T. pardalis
紫色东方鲀 T. porphyreus
*假睛东方鲀 T. pseudommus 13 5 3 14 3
网纹东方鲀 T. reticularis
红鳍东方鲀 T. rubripes
虫纹东方鲀 T. vermicularis
黄鳍东方鲀 T. xanthopterus
口足目 Stomatopoda
虾蛄科 Squillidae
黑斑口虾蛄 Oratosquilla kempi
*口虾蛄 O. oratoria 12 18 18 17 14 17 16 16
十足目Decapoda
对虾科 Penaeidae
*中国明对虾 Fenneropenaeus chinensis 17 4 14 7
周氏新对虾 Metapenaeus joyneri
*鹰爪虾 Trachysalambria curvirostris 1 1 4 1 6
鼓虾科 Alpheidae
*鲜明鼓虾 Alpheus distinguendus 1 7 6 1 1 5
*日本鼓虾 A. japonicus 18 10 7 15 14 3 2 15
藻虾科 Hippolytidae
*中华安乐虾 Eualus sinensis 4 1
*长足七腕虾 Heptacarpus futilirostris 3
*疣背深额虾 Latreutes planirostris 11 2 9 19 2 1 7
*水母深额虾 L. anoplonyx 8 1 2
*红条鞭腕虾 Lysmata vittata 4 6 3 3 2
褐虾科 Crangonidae
*日本褐虾 Crangon hakodatei 19 4 19 19 3 1 20
*黄海褐虾 C. uritai 8
长臂虾科 Palaemonidae
安氏白虾 Exopalaemon annandalei
*脊尾白虾 E. carinicauda 1 5 12 3 2 13
*葛氏长臂虾 Palaemon gravieri 14 7 13 16 19 6 9 19
巨指长臂虾 P. macrodactylus
锯齿长臂虾 P. serrifer
玻璃虾科 Pasiphaeidae
*细螯虾 Leptochela gracilis 7 1 1 10 10 2 1
美人虾科 Callianassidae
*哈氏和美虾 Nihonotrypaea harmandi 1
日本和美虾 N. japonica
蝼蛄虾科 Upogebiidae
*大蝼蛄虾 Upogebia major 3 4 5 1 4
黎明蟹科 Matutidae
*红线黎明蟹 Matuta planipes 6 3 7 1
宽背蟹科 Euryplacidae
*隆线强蟹 Eucrata crenata 7 15 8 11 13 13 8 11
突眼蟹科 Oregoniidae
*枯瘦突眼蟹 Oregonia gracilis 2
虎头蟹科 Orithyidae
*中华虎头蟹 Orithyia sinica 1
菱蟹科 Parthenopinae
强壮武装紧握蟹 Enoplolambrus valida
梭子蟹科 Portunidae
*三疣梭子蟹 Portunus trituberculatus 3 15 18 5 10 20 19 3
*日本蟳 Charybdis japonica 12 20 20 11 19 20 20 7
双斑蟳 C. bimaculata
弓蟹科 Varunidae
中华绒螯蟹 Eriocheir sinensis 3
*绒螯近方蟹 Hemigrapsus penicillatus 11 1 2 10 4 1 12
枪形目 Teuthoidea
枪乌贼科 Loliginidae
*火枪乌贼 Loliolus beka 15 20 20 9 20 20 20 2
*日本枪乌贼 L. japonica
乌贼目 Sepioidea
乌贼科 Sepiidae
日本无针乌贼 Sepiella japonica
耳乌贼科 Sepiolidae
*双喙耳乌贼 Sepiola birostrata 2 5
八腕目Octopoda
蛸科 Octopodidae
*短蛸 Octopus fangsiao 6 13 4 16 13 1
*长蛸 O. cf. 2 1 2 2 5 6 7
真蛸 O. ocellatus
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