生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (5): 537-546.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.10009

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莱州湾游泳动物群落种类组成及多样性

李凡, 张焕君, 吕振波*(), 徐炳庆, 郑亮   

  1. 山东省海洋水产研究所, 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室, 山东烟台 264006
  • 收稿日期:2013-01-07 接受日期:2013-06-06 出版日期:2013-09-20 发布日期:2013-10-08
  • 通讯作者: 吕振波
  • 基金资助:
    海洋公益性行业科研专项经费项目(200905019);山东省海洋生态环境与防灾减灾重点实验室开放基金项目(2011015);“水生动物营养与饲料‘泰山学者’岗位”经费

Species composition and community diversity of nekton in Laizhou Bay, China

Fan Li, Huanjun Zhang, Zhenbo Lü*(), Bingqing Xu, Liang Zheng   

  1. Shandong Marine and Fishery Research Institute, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Restoration for Marine Ecology, Yantai, Shandong 264006
  • Received:2013-01-07 Accepted:2013-06-06 Online:2013-09-20 Published:2013-10-08
  • Contact: Lü Zhenbo

摘要:

为了解莱州湾海域游泳动物群落现状及变化, 作者于2010-2011年春季(5月)、夏季(8月)、秋季(10月)和冬季(12月)在该海域进行了8航次底拖网调查, 对游泳动物的种类组成、优势种与多样性进行了研究。调查共捕获游泳动物85种, 包括鱼类55种、甲壳类25种、头足类5种; 鲈形目最多(28种), 十足目(24种)次之。游泳动物种数存在明显的季节变化, 主要是鱼类种数变化引起的, 甲壳类和头足类种数季节变化较小。优势种分析表明, 目前莱州湾中上层鱼类以青鳞小沙丁鱼(Sardinella zunasi)、斑鰶(Konosirus punctatus)和赤鼻棱鳀(Thryssa kammalensis)为主, 底层鱼类以矛尾虾虎鱼(Chaeturichthys stigmatias)、斑尾刺虾虎鱼(Acanthogobius ommaturus)和短吻红舌鳎(Cynoglossus joyneri)为主, 甲壳类以口虾蛄(Orgtosaquilla oratoria)、日本虫寻(Charybdis japonica)和日本褐虾(Crangon hakodatei)为主, 头足类以枪乌贼(Loliolus sp.)为主。枪乌贼、矛尾虾虎鱼、斑鰶在2年调查中均为优势种, 鳀(Engraulis japonicus)已不再是莱州湾的优势种类。Shannon-Wiener指数夏季最高, 冬季最低, 其季节间差异显著(F=6.003, P<0.001), 而年间差异不显著(t=0.446, P=0.657>0.05); 调查海域西南部的站位Shannon-Wiener指数较低, 而东北部则较高。自20世纪50年代末以来, 莱州湾游泳动物种数特别是鱼类种数呈下降趋势, 目前, 软骨鱼类及硬骨鱼类中的河口种、溯河洄游种、大型经济种、鲆蝶类和东方鲀类等种数已显著减少; 群落优势种沿带鱼(Trichiurus lepturus)、黄鲫(Setipinna taty)、鳀、赤鼻棱鳀、枪乌贼不断向更小型化的方向演替。增殖放流种类在调查中均有渔获, 仅鮻(Liza haematocheilus)于2010年冬季成为该季节优势种, 表明增殖放流活动并未较大程度改变莱州湾游泳动物群落结构。目前夏季是游泳动物群落的Shannon-Wiener指数最高的季节, 也略高于1982-2006年调查结果, 可能与伏季休渔政策保护了当年生幼鱼有关。

关键词: 莱州湾, 游泳动物, 种类组成, 优势种, 多样性

Abstract:

Based on trawls conducted in Laizhou Bay, China (119°05′-120°00′ E, 37°12′-37°40′ N), in 2010 and 2011, an analysis was made of changes in species composition, dominant species and community diversity of nekton. A total of 85 species were identified, which included 55 fish, 25 crustaceans and 5 cephalopod species. The most species-rich orders were Perciformes (28 species) and Decapoda (24 species). There was obvious seasonal variation in nekton number, mostly influenced by the number of fishes. Sardinella zunasi, Konosirus punctatus and Thryssa kammalensis were the main pelagic fishes in Laizhou Bay, Chaeturichthys stigmatias, Acanthogobius ommaturus and Cynoglossus joyneri were the main bottom fishes, Orgtosaquilla oratoria, Charybdis japonica and Crangon hakodatei were the main crustaceans, while squid (Loliolus sp.) represented the main cephalopods. Loliolus sp., Chaeturichthys stigmatias and Konosirus punctatus were the dominant species in both 2010 and 2011 and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index was highest in summer and lowest in winter. The Shannon-Wiener index was also higher in the north-east area and lower in the south-west. Since the late 1950s, nekton number, especially of fish, has significantly declined due to human activities and climate change impacts. This is particularly true for cartilaginous fish, estuarine species, river-migratory species, large-scale economic fish, flatfish and takifugu. In parallel, dominant species, such as Trichiurus lepturus, Setipinna taty, Engraulis japonicus, Thryssa kammalensis have been replaced by smaller nekton.

Key words: the Laizhou bay, nekton, species composition, dominant species, diversity