生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (6): 750-757.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.08138

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中国栽培植物野生近缘种及其保护对策

于燕波1, 王群亮4, ShelaghKell2, NigelMaxted2, Brian V. Ford-Lloyd2, 魏伟3, *(), 康定明1, *(), 马克平3   

  1. 1 中国农业大学农学与生物技术学院, 北京 100193
    2 School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    3 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    4 山东省微山县农业局, 山东微山 277600
  • 收稿日期:2013-06-13 接受日期:2013-09-01 出版日期:2013-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 魏伟,康定明 E-mail:weiwei@ibcas.ac.cn;kdm@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    中英可持续农业创新网络(SAIN)项目“通过增强保护和利用作物野生近缘种的多样性以支持可持续发展和减缓气候变化(CWR China)”

Crop wild relatives and their conservation strategies in China

Yanbo Yu1, Qunliang Wang4, Shelagh Kell2, Nigel Maxted2, Brian V. Ford-Lloyd2, Wei Wei3, *(), Dingming Kang1, *(), Keping Ma3   

  1. 1 College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
    2 School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    3 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    4 Agricultural Bureau of the Weishan County of Shandong Province, Weishan, Shandong 277600, China
  • Received:2013-06-13 Accepted:2013-09-01 Online:2013-11-20
  • Contact: Wei Wei,Kang Dingming E-mail:weiwei@ibcas.ac.cn;kdm@pku.edu.cn

栽培植物野生近缘种资源是植物遗传资源的重要组成部分, 拥有独特的生物学特性, 在应对气候变化和保证粮食安全方面具有极大潜力和价值。根据我们的初步调查, 我国拥有24,000多种栽培植物野生近缘种, 其中大多数能够为栽培植物的品种改良提供支持。迁地保护(如种质库)能够收集和保存丰富的遗传资源, 但却无法替代能够包含自然进化信息的原生境保护。我国已经建立了169个栽培植物野生近缘种原生境保护区(点), 迫切需要制定国家栽培植物野生近缘种保护策略和行动计划, 鉴别国家和地区水平上需要优先保护的物种, 以及采取步骤, 整合迁地和原生境保护方法, 达到保护这些优先物种的目的。本文总结了我国栽培植物野生近缘种及其保护所取得的进展, 介绍了国内外在植物遗传资源保护利用方面的成功经验, 并提出了我国栽培植物野生近缘种的保护策略: 建议首先开展栽培植物野生近缘种资源编目工作, 并结合国家和地区的环境与资源状况的国际标准, 确定优先保护种类; 针对不同种类, 采取迁地保护和原生境保护相结合的方法保护栽培植物野生近缘种资源。

关键词: 栽培植物野生近缘种, 原生境保护, 遗传资源, 保护对策, 气候变化

Crop wild relatives (CWR) are important components of plant genetic resources that are characterized by unique biological traits, including those with great potential and specific value in coping with climate change and ensuring food security. In general, there are more than 24,000 CWR species that can be found in China, many of which are likely to contain valuable characters for crop improvement. There are many ex situ collections of plant genetic resources including some CWR in China, but that does not replace the role and function of in situ conservation, which conserves the diversity of population in nature so that ongoing evolutionary processes of selection and adaptation to their natural habitats are maintained. One hundred and sixty-nine in situ protected areas have been established so far in China, however, there is an urgent need for China to develop a national CWR strategy which identifies prior species for conservation at national and regional levels and the steps needed to secure those species using complementary (in situ and ex situ) conservation approaches. The steps taken so far in China for CWR conservation are discussed and possible conservation strategies are proposed in this paper, which serves as a crucial reference for developing conservation policy for China’s CWR.

Key words: crop wild relative, in situ conservation, genetic resource, conservation strategy, climate change

图1

2005-2009年中国平均年产大于100万吨的栽培植物, 其野生近缘种原产于中国, 并可用于品种改良(FAO, 2010)。"

表1

中国栽培植物野生近缘种物种数统计"

且 目录 Category 物种数量 Number of species
植物物种总数 Total number of plant species 35,342
栽培植物野生近缘种 Crop wild relatives 24,538
粮食栽培植物野生近缘种 Wild relatives of food crops 1,229
高经济价值栽培植物的野生近缘种 Wild relatives of crops of high economic importance 629
某省特有的粮食栽培植物野生近缘种 Wild relatives of food crops endemic to only one province 485

图2

栽培植物野生近缘种保护工作步骤及其相互关系"

图3

栽培植物野生近缘种(CWR)名录产生的方法和步骤"

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