生物多样性 ›› 2011, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (6): 614-626.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.13185

所属专题: 中国的海洋生物多样性

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国海物种多样性研究进展

刘瑞玉*   

  1. 中国科学院海洋研究所, 山东青岛 266071
  • 收稿日期:2011-10-13 修回日期:2011-12-13 出版日期:2011-11-20 发布日期:2011-12-19
  • 通讯作者: 刘瑞玉

Progress of marine biodiversity studies in China seas

Ruiyu Liu*   

  1. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071
  • Received:2011-10-13 Revised:2011-12-13 Online:2011-11-20 Published:2011-12-19
  • Contact: Ruiyu Liu

摘要: 中国海的生物多样性研究是中国科学院青岛海洋生物研究室1950年成立后开始大规模系统进行的。经过半个多世纪的努力, 迄今已有千篇论文和约200部专著出版。主要专著《中国动物志》“无脊椎动物”已出版47卷, 其中27卷为海洋生物, 5年计划编写中17卷; 《中国动物志》“脊椎动物”鱼类11卷, 哺乳类1卷; 《中国海藻志》8卷, 待出版4卷, 编写中3卷。另外, 《海洋科学集刊》已出版的50卷中有22卷是海洋生物的专刊; 另有《西沙群岛生物考察专辑》6卷。其中有代表性的著作《中国海洋生物种类与分布》(黄宗国, 1994)集成国内外文献, 记载物种20,278种(内有化石种及异名应除去)。2008年出版的《中国海洋生物名录》(刘瑞玉主编)记录22,629现生种, 比1994年相同门类多5,118种, 仅次于澳大利亚和日本, 居世界第三位。主要进展是取得了中国海翔实可靠的物种鉴定、编目和分布数据。此外还参加了国际“物种2000”计划项目, 交出的“中国生物名录”比2008年名录显著增多。全部物种正进行“世界海洋物种登录”(WoRMS), 可供与世界不同海域和生境的种类多样性作比较研究。完成国家标准《海洋生物分类代码》(国家质量技术监督局1999发布)的修订, 纠正了种名和分类系统的错误, 增补了物种, 保证了作为国家标准的高水平, 待付印。完成全国濒危物种评估, 负责编写《中国物种红色名录》1、3、2卷海洋无脊椎动物部分; 结果发现濒危物种显著增多。1997–2000年“专属经济区大陆架环境资源调查”的结果进一步显示陆架海域生物多样性和主要资源衰退, 还提出了应采取的措施。中国参加了国际重大项目“海洋生物普查计划”, 进行了浮游动物普查, 提交了中国国家汇总报告——中国海生物多样性研究, 交PLoS ONE出版。全面加强了多样性和濒危种的保护, 全国已建立国家级海洋自然保护区33个, 特别保护区21个。论文在肯定中国海生物多样性研究进展和成绩的同时, 指出了存在的主要不足是调查采集和研究的生境主要在陆架浅海, 深海大洋特殊生境刚刚起步; 多样性调查缺少全国统一计划行动, 缺全面的多样性“背景值”资料。而监测、采集、研究不够; 评估、保护亟待加强。文终提出了几点涉及学科发展和多样性监测、评估、保护的关键性建议。

Abstract: Efforts have been made by scientists studying on the taxonomy, biogeography and biodiversity in China seas since 1950, the establishment of Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Over 1,000 papers and 200 volumes of monographs have been published, of which more than 47 volumes are Fauna SinicaInvertebrata (27 volumes on marine biota), 11 volumes of Fauna SinicaVertebrata are on fishes, and 8 volumes are Flora Algarum Marinarum Sinicarum. Results of studies on biodiversity in whole China seas were summarized in Marine Species and Their Distributions in China’s Seas’ (1994) and Checklist of Marine Biota of China Seas (2008). In the latter volume, new taxonomic results up to 2007 were added, and a total of 22,629 marine species were recorded, with an increase of 5,118 species compared with those reported in 1994. So far, the biodiversity of China seas is high. The results of “Shelf Environment and Bio-resources Survey 1997–2000” and those of “Endangered Species Assessment Project” (2000–2004) published in China Species Red List vols.1, 3, 2A, 2B (2004, 2005 and 2009) revealed that under the impacts of global climate change and anthropogenic activities, the biodiversity and bio-resources have seriously declined, the number of endangered species increased, and some major populations collapsed. China joined the World Marine Biodiversity Project “Census of Marine Life” (CoML) in 2004. In the project “Census of Marine Zooplankton”, ecosystem dynamics and biodiversity characteristics had been investigated; and in a survey cruise from Arctic to Antarctic through Equator, 2000 zooplankton samples were taken by R/V “Science I” of Institute of Oceanology, CAS, and 260 DNA barcoding data have been obtained. For the CoML “NRIC: Synthesis Program”, the China Collection Report entitled “Status of marine biodiversity study in China seas” had been drafted and submitted to PLoS ONE for publication, the progress of China’s marine biodiversity and biogeography studies has been reviewed by the present author. To strengthen the conservation of biodiversity and endangered species, 33+21 National Marine Nature Reserves and 7 National Marine Parks have been established up to date. Problems in marine biodiversity study and conservation in China seas are discussed and the following suggestions are put forward: (1) To strengthen the collection of materials (specimens) for marine biodiversity study, a biodiversity background value survey and deep sea collection cruises should be carried out to discover new species and reveal the past, present, and to predict the future trends of major species and biological communities; (2) Carrying on biodiversity monitoring survey in various habitats around the country, to understand the processes and mechanisms of global climate change and human activities impacting biodiversity; (3) Strengthening basic research on change in marine biodiversity, particular the assessment and conservation of biodiversity and endangered species for sustainable development; (4) Minimizing the disparity between the study and conservation of marine and terrestrial (including freshwater) biodiversities, and effective management; and (5) Training young scientists, particularly taxonomists to study different biotic groups systematically.