生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (1): 48-54.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015159

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基于压力-状态-响应模型的辽宁省长海海域海洋生物多样性评价

黄备1,2,*(), 魏娜1, 孟伟杰1, 张明霞3   

  1. 1 (浙江省舟山海洋生态环境监测站, 浙江舟山 316021)
    2 (海洋生态系统监测与评价联合实验室, 浙江舟山 316021)
    3 (辽宁省大连长海县环境监测站, 辽宁长海 116500);① 吕文利 (2014) 长三角城市群城市生态安全评价与比较研究. 硕士学位论文, 华东师范大学环境与资源学院, 上海.② 孙龙启 (2014) 广西近海生态系统健康评价. 硕士学位论文, 厦门大学, 厦门.
  • 收稿日期:2015-06-09 接受日期:2015-09-27 出版日期:2016-01-20 发布日期:2016-06-12
  • 通讯作者: 黄备
  • 基金资助:
    基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(41206186)、浙江省科技厅公益重点项目(2014C23002)和浙江省环保厅科研项目(2012A033和2013A020)

Marine biodiversity evaluation based on the pressure-state-response (PSR) model of Changhai County, Liaoning Province

Bei Huang1,2,*(), Na Wei1, Weijie Meng1, Mingxia Zhang3   

  1. 1 Zhoushan Marine Ecological Environment Monitoring Station, Zhoushan, Zhejiang 316021
    2 Joint Laboratory of Marine Ecosystem Monitoring and Health Assessment, Zhoushan, Zhejiang 316021
    3 Environment Monitoring Station of Changhai County, Dalian City, Liaoning Province, Changhai, Liaoning 116500
  • Received:2015-06-09 Accepted:2015-09-27 Online:2016-01-20 Published:2016-06-12
  • Contact: Huang Bei

摘要:

为了准确评价我国北方沿海地区生物多样性状况, 研究社会经济发展对生物多样性的影响, 我们选择辽宁省长海县开展研究。长海县是中国唯一的海岛边境县, 也是我国北方著名的渔业县, 捕捞、海水养殖为长海县的支柱产业, 境内海洋生物资源丰富。我们收集和监测2004-2013年间长海县的社会经济、生态环境和环境保护等数据, 以压力-状态-响应框架模型(PSR框架模型)为基础, 筛选出19项指标组成长海县海洋生物多样性评价指标体系。运用层次分析法确定各指标的权重, 并计算海洋生物多样性指数, 结果发现: 2004年海洋生物多样性指数为历年最大, 达0.660, 评价等级为良; 2013年为历年最小, 只有0.471, 评价等级为中。2004-2007年的海洋生物多样性状况要好于2008-2013年。分析其中的压力、状态和响应指标的变化, 发现构成压力指标的工业废水排放量、固定资产投资额、外来物种养殖产量、旅游人数和海上货运量等诸多指标的归一化值多年来均呈明显的下降趋势, 说明生物多样性压力呈加大的趋势, 对长海县的生物多样性状态存在潜在的影响。

关键词: 压力-状态-响应模型, 海洋生物多样性指数, 长海县

Abstract:

Abstract: Biodiversity is the basis for survival and development of human society and it affects various aspects of modern life. In order to assess the marine biodiversity status in coastal areas of northern China, and to study the impacts of socio-economic development on the local marine biodiversity, we conducted a trial study in Changhai County. Changhai is the only island county in the China, which is also rich in various biological resources. As a famous northern fishery county, the primary industries in Changhai are marine fisheries and aquaculture. We collected data on social economic development, the ecological environment, and environmental protection in Changhai County during 2004-2013. We selected 19 indicators to build the marine biodiversity assessment framework based on the pressure-state-response (PSR) model, determined the weight values using the Analytical Hierarchy Process approach, and calculated the Marine Biodiversity Index. The results showed that the Marine Biodiversity Index reached a maximum value of 0.660 and thus matched to level “Good” in 2004, and then declined to 0.471 and to level “Medium” in 2013. During the investigated period, the state of marine biodiversity in 2004-2007 was better than that in 2008-2013. Changes in pressure, state, and response indices revealed that the trends of weighted scores of several pressure indicators, such as the discharge of industrial waste water, fixed asset investment, aquaculture of non-indigenous species, number of tourists, and port cargo all showed an obvious decreasing tendency, which suggest growing pressures on marine biodiversity, and potential impacts on biodiversity in Changhai.

Key words: PSR model, Marine Biodiversity Index, Changhai County