生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (4): 431-437.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14082

所属专题: 国家公园建设论坛

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《联合国气候变化框架公约》与《生物多样性公约》的关系

王敏, 刘哲*(), 冯相昭, 田春秀   

  1. 环境保护部环境与经济政策研究中心, 北京 100029
  • 收稿日期:2014-04-16 接受日期:2014-06-14 出版日期:2014-07-20 发布日期:2014-07-24
  • 通讯作者: 刘哲
  • 基金资助:
    国际合作及履约(2110106)

Cross-boundary issues under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Convention on Biodiversity

Min Wang, Zhe Liu*(), Xiangzhao Feng, Chunxiu Tian   

  1. Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100029
  • Received:2014-04-16 Accepted:2014-06-14 Online:2014-07-20 Published:2014-07-24
  • Contact: Liu Zhe

摘要:

气候变化和生物多样性损失是人类面临的两个严峻的全球性环境挑战, 有关应对气候变化和生物多样性保护国际公约的协作在全球范围内也越来越受重视。本文系统梳理了《联合国气候变化框架公约》下保护生物多样性和《生物多样性公约》下应对气候变化的发展脉络, 探讨了两公约下各缔约方针对相关议题的谈判立场及未来走向, 并对两公约进行了综合评价。《联合国气候变化框架公约》下涉及生物多样性保护的焦点议题主要有土地利用、土地利用变化和林业(Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry, LULUCF)、减少毁林和森林退化的碳排放机制(Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, REDD)及损失和损害国际机制, 《生物多样性公约》下涉及应对气候变化的焦点议题主要有协同增效、减少毁林和森林退化的碳排放机制(REDD)和地球工程及相关问题。本文最后还就我国应对气候变化和生物多样性国际谈判及国内履约提出了建议: (1)整合谈判团队力量, 促进两公约协同增效; (2)做好交叉议题的研判和谈判预案, 主动引领谈判进程; (3)为《联合国气候变化框架公约》谈判提供损失和损害风险评估数据; (4)加强《生物多样性公约》下地球工程议题的科学研究与国际交流。

关键词: 气候变化, 生物多样性, 谈判进展, 协同增效

Abstract

Climate change and biodiversity loss are two of the most serious global environmental challenges faced by humans. As these challenges involve global public goods, it is crucially important that the global society should strive to make synergies between the two most influential United Nations (UN) conventions, which are the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Convention on Biodiversity. This paper reviews the negotiation process under the two conventions, especially focusing on cross-boundary issues. By analyzing the focal concerns of main parties, this paper evaluates possible future scenarios on cross-boundary issues under the two conventions. For the UNFCCC, focal issues related to biodiversity are as follows: LULUCF (Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry); REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation); and the international mechanism for Loss and Damage. For the Biodiversity Convention, the major issues related to climate change are: Synergy; REDD; Geo-engineering and related issues. In the end, we propose the following strategies: (1) Integrate the forces of our negotiating team, and promote synergistic actions under two conventions; (2) Plan for negotiations about cross-boundary issues, and take the initiative in the negotiation process; (3) Provide data for risk assessment associated with loss and damage; and (4) Strengthen scientific research and international exchange on geo-engineering issues.

Key words: climate change, biodiversity, negotiations, synergetic effects