生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (10): 1153-1161.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019110

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国家管辖范围以外区域海洋生物多样性保护的新视域: 包括海洋保护区在内的划区管理工具

廖建基,黄浩(),李伟文,王磊,安丽娜   

  1. 自然资源部第三海洋研究所, 福建厦门 361005
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-28 接受日期:2019-08-20 出版日期:2019-10-20 发布日期:2019-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 黄浩
  • 基金资助:
    自然资源部第三海洋研究所基本科研业务费专项资金(海三科 2016018);自然资源部第三海洋研究所基本科研业务费专项资金(2016009);中国大洋矿产资源研究开发协会十三五资源类项目(DY135-E2-5);自然资源部国际合作司国家管辖外海洋生物多样性研究项目

A new perspective on marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ): Making use of area-based management tools (ABMTs), including marine protected areas (MPAs)

Liao Jianji,Huang Hao(),Li Weiwen,Wang Lei,An Lina   

  1. Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen, Fujian 361005
  • Received:2019-03-28 Accepted:2019-08-20 Online:2019-10-20 Published:2019-12-20
  • Contact: Huang Hao

摘要:

随着人类对海洋资源开发利用强度的增加, 海洋生物多样性的养护面临更大挑战。联合国大会决定在《联合国海洋法公约》框架下拟定一份新的法律文书, 以解决国家管辖范围以外区域海洋生物多样性(marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction, BBNJ)的养护与可持续利用问题。包括海洋保护区在内的划区管理工具(area-based management tools (ABMTs), including marine protected areas (MPAs))是BBNJ国际文书谈判的一个重要议题。目前谈判尚处于早期阶段, 各国对ABMTs/MPAs缺乏共同的观点。本文通过分析ABMTs/MPAs的定义和内涵以及两者的异同点、目标、与现有相关法律文书、框架和机构的关系、一般原则和方法、现有框架以及面临的缺乏调查数据、缺失全球性法律框架以及缺少利益相关者参与等挑战, 提出需提高设立海洋保护区的科学性、建立有效的监测与执法机制以及加强国际合作等建议。

关键词: 国家管辖范围以外区域海洋生物多样性, 公海保护区, 海洋法, 生物多样性公约, 海洋空间规划

Abstract

With the increasing exploitation of marine biodiversity, conservation is facing several challenges. The Intergovernmental Conference to create an international legally binding instrument (ILBI) under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ) was convened. They aimed to address the gap between conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. One of the core talking points of the ILBI, area-based management tools (ABMTs), including marine protected areas (MPAs), were widely recognized as a key mechanism for conserving and restoring biodiversity. Though the process of creating the ILBI is still in its early stages, there has been a lack of common understanding among United Nations (UN) member states regarding the elements of this new protocol. Thus, here we analyze the differences and commonalities of definitions and objectives from the UNCLOS, as well as other instruments and frameworks, relevant global, regional and sectoral bodies, general principles and approaches, current legal and policy frameworks, technological challenges and stakeholder engagement. Our recommendations to increase understanding of ABMTs/MPAs include improving the scientificity of establishing MPAs, establishing effective monitoring and enforcement mechanisms and strengthening international cooperation for the establishment of ABMTs/MPAs in areas beyond national jurisdiction.

Key words: marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ), marine protected areas in the high seas, the law of the sea, Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), marine spatial planning