生物多样性 ›› 2011, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (6): 685-695.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.11130

所属专题: 中国的海洋生物多样性

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

南沙群岛珊瑚礁浮游动物多样性与群落结构

尹健强1*, 黄良民1, 李开枝1, 熊兰兰1, 2   

  1. 1中国科学院南海海洋研究所海洋生物资源可持续利用重点实验室, 广州 510301
    2中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2011-07-29 修回日期:2011-12-01 出版日期:2011-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 尹健强 E-mail:jqyin@scsio.ac.cn

Species diversity and community structure of zooplankton in the Zhubi Atoll, Nansha Islands, South China Sea

Jianqiang Yin1*, Liangmin Huang1, Kaizhi Li1, Lanlan Xiong1, 2   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Marine Bio-resources Sustainable Utilization, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301

    2 Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2011-07-29 Revised:2011-12-01 Online:2011-11-20
  • Contact: Jianqiang Yin E-mail:jqyin@scsio.ac.cn

珊瑚礁是地球上已知的海洋生物多样性最高的生态系统, 为了深入分析珊瑚礁的浮游动物多样性和群落结构, 2004年5月5–15日在南沙群岛渚碧礁布设10个大面站(澙湖、礁坪各5个)和1个连续站(位于礁坪), 使用网目孔径分别为169 μm和505 μm的两种浮游生物网进行垂直拖网采样。结果表明: 共鉴定浮游动物种类96种和幼虫17个类群(或类型), 其中桡足类最多, 达65种, 其次是幼虫; 浮游动物数量丰富, 根据169 μm网具样品的数据, 平均丰度高达926.0±1,155.8 inds./m3, 优势类群依次是桡足类、被囊类和幼虫, 优势种为奥氏胸刺水蚤(Centropages orsinii)、珍妮纺锤水蚤(Acartia shuzheni)、长尾住囊虫(Oikopleura longicauda)、梭形住囊虫(O. fusifornis)和腹足类面盘幼虫(Gastropoda veliger); 渚碧礁浮游动物空间分布差异相当显著, 澙湖区形成与礁坪区不同的群落, 前者种类多、丰度高、优势种突出、均匀度低, 而后者则完全相反, 浮游动物群落的空间变化是由珊瑚礁礁盘的空间异质性所造成。浮游动物昼夜变化明显, 夜间出现的种数和平均丰度分别是日间的4.6和46.2倍。浮游动物群落以终生浮游生物的种类和数量占多数, 它们来源于礁外海水, 有的也属于礁栖类型。在珊瑚礁中, 中小型浮游动物无论在种类还是丰度方面都占有非常重要的位置。

Coral reefs contain the highest biodiversity ecosystem on Earth. In order to improve our understanding of the biodiversity and zooplankton communities, zooplankton was sampled using vertical trawls with 169 μm and 505 μm planktonic nets at 10 stations (5 within lagoon and 5 on reef flat) and one continuous observatory station from the 5th to the 15th of May, 2004 in the Zhubi Atoll of the Nansha Islands. A total of 96 species and 17 groups of planktonic larvae were identified, among which the greatest species number was the copepods with 65 species, followed by the planktonic larvae. The average abundance of zooplankton based on the data from 169 μm planktonic net was 926.0 ± 1,155.8 inds./m3. Decreasingly dominant groups included copepods, tunicates and larvae, while dominant species included Centropages orsinii, Acartia shuzheni, Oikopleura longicauda, O. fusifornis and Gastropoda veliger. Zooplankton community structure differed between the lagoon area and reef flat. The lagoon was characterized by high species number and abundance, a prominence of dominant species and low in species evenness indices, while the reef flat showed a more even community, likely due to relatively high levels of spatial heterogeneity in coral reefs. Diurnal variations of zooplankton were obvious that species richness and average abundance at nighttime were 4.6 and 46.2 times that of the daytime values on the reef flat, respectively. Holoplankton dominated communities both in terms of richness and were either transported from oceanic waters outside the atoll or were associated with the reef-associated itself. Both meso- and micro-zooplankton played an important role in species richness and abundance in the coral reef.

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