生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (3): 258-265.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017312

• 研究报告: 生态系统多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

三亚珊瑚礁保护区珊瑚礁生态系统现状及其健康状况评价

孙有方1,2,3,4, 雷新明1,2,*(), 练健生1,2, 杨剑辉1,2, 吴莹莹1,3,5, 黄晖1,2,4,*()   

  1. 1 (中国科学院南海海洋研究所, 中国科学院热带海洋生物资源与生态重点实验室, 广州 510301)
    2 (广东省应用海洋生物学重点实验室, 广州 510301)
    3 (中国科学院大学, 北京 100049)
    4 (中国科学院海南热带海洋生物实验站, 海南三亚 572000)
    5 (中国科学院北京综合研究中心, 北京 101407)
  • 收稿日期:2017-11-21 接受日期:2018-01-10 出版日期:2018-03-20 发布日期:2018-05-05
  • 通讯作者: 雷新明,黄晖
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)(XDA13020402, XDA13020201)、国家海洋局海洋公益性项目(201305030-3)和国家自然科学基金(41306144, 41276160, 41476134)

Ecosystem status and health assessment of Sanya Coral Reef National Nature Reserve

Sun Youfang1,2,3,4, Lei Xinming1,2,*(), Lian Jiansheng1,2, Yang Jianhui1,2, Wu Yingying1,3,5, Huang Hui1,2,4,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301
    2 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology, Guangzhou 510301
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    4 Tropical Marine Biological Research Station in Hainan, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya, Hainan 572000
    5 Beijing Advanced Sciences and Innovation Centre, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101407
  • Received:2017-11-21 Accepted:2018-01-10 Online:2018-03-20 Published:2018-05-05
  • Contact: Lei Xinming,Huang Hui

摘要:

为评估三亚珊瑚礁国家级自然保护区珊瑚礁生态系统的健康状况, 本文选取东岛、鹿回头、大东海3个站位调查了珊瑚礁群落、珊瑚礁鱼类和大型底栖动物。通过对比分析历史资料、珊瑚礁现场生态调查与监测及组织专家评审, 筛选出一、二级指标并设置权重, 使用综合指数计算了三亚珊瑚礁保护区珊瑚礁生态系统健康指数。结果显示, 三亚珊瑚礁保护区内共有造礁珊瑚10科21属37种, 软珊瑚3种, 造礁珊瑚覆盖率和软珊瑚覆盖率分别为14.31%和0.19%, 其中鹿回头造礁珊瑚覆盖率最高, 为21.58%。珊瑚礁鱼类共14科28属36种, 其中, 雀鲷科的种类数最多, 为11种。鹿回头4 m断面珊瑚礁鱼类密度最大, 为154尾/300 m2。砗磲和龙虾极少发现, 珊瑚天敌核果螺多见。东岛、鹿回头、大东海珊瑚礁生态系统健康状况均处于“一般”。本文所采用的方法是结合常规珊瑚礁监测可获得的指标进行评价, 简便易操作, 通过在三亚珊瑚礁保护区的实践, 能够很好地反映珊瑚礁生态系统现状及其健康状况, 科研和业务化监测部门均可应用。

关键词: 珊瑚礁生态系统, 健康评价, 生态现状, 三亚

Abstract

To assess the health of Sanya Coral Reef National Nature Reserve (SCRNNR), we surveyed corals, reef fish, and macrobenthos at three stations (Dongdao, Luhuitou, Dadonghai). We compared these data with historical data together with expert consultations, and identified first and second class indices of coral reef ecosystem health and their weights (coral reef ecosystem health assessment comprehensive index method). We recorded 37 species of hermatypic corals, and three species of soft corals, averaging 14.31% and 0.19% of the benthic cover, respectively. The highest cover of hermatypic corals was 21.58% at Luhuitou. Thirty-six species of coral reef fishes belonging to 14 families and 28 genera were recorded, of which Pomacentridae was the dominant family. Density of reef fishes was highest at 4 m depth on Luhuitou reef reaching up to 154/300 m2. Corallivorous snail and lobsters were rarely observed while corallivorous snails, Drupella, were common at all sites. Our results indicate that the health status of Dongdao, Luhuitou, Dadonghai coral reef ecosystems are “general”. We conclude that this survey approach provides a feasible and practical method for scientific research and management departments to assess the health status of coral reef ecosystems.

Key words: coral reef ecosystem, health assessment, ecological status, Sanya