生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (3): 320-328.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13137

所属专题: 海洋生物多样性

• • 上一篇    下一篇

海南岛西北沿岸海域浮游桡足类的分布及群落特征

孙柔鑫, 王彦国, 连光山, 林茂*()   

  1. 国家海洋局第三海洋研究所, 福建厦门 361005
  • 收稿日期:2013-06-08 接受日期:2014-04-24 出版日期:2014-05-20 发布日期:2014-06-04
  • 通讯作者: 林茂
  • 基金资助:
    海洋生物样品库升级与改扩建(GASI-01-02-02);海洋公益性行业科研专项经费项目(201005015)

Distribution and community characteristics of planktonic copepods in the northwest coastal waters off Hainan Island

Rouxin Sun, Yanguo Wang, Guangshan Lian, Mao Lin*()   

  1. Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian 361005
  • Received:2013-06-08 Accepted:2014-04-24 Online:2014-05-20 Published:2014-06-04
  • Contact: Lin Mao

摘要:

为了解昌江沿岸海域生态系统的现状, 探讨海域环境因素对浮游动物的生存环境造成的影响。本文根据2008年11月至2009年7月在海南西部昌江沿岸水域21个测站、4个季度月调查所获的浮游桡足类样品数据, 对该海域浮游桡足类群落结构、分布、季节变化及影响因素进行了分析。本调查共鉴定出桡足类44种, 隶属4目17科24属, 其中秋季25种, 冬季23种, 春季22种, 夏季23种。本次调查共发现优势种6种, 分别是微刺哲水蚤(Canthocalanus pauper)、亚强次真哲水蚤(Subeucalanus subcrassus)、锥形宽水蚤(Temora turbinata)、刺尾纺锤水蚤(Acartia spinicauda)、椭形长足水蚤(Calanopia elliptica)和精致真刺水蚤(Euchaeta concinna), 优势种以近岸暖水种居多。浮游桡足类丰度季节变化明显: 冬季最高, 达409 ind./m3; 秋季次之, 为144 ind./m3, 春季为55 ind./m3, 夏季最低仅为17 ind./m3。其丰度的平面分布显示: 秋、冬季节分别在海区中部和南部形成明显密集区, 春、夏季节则大致呈现由外海向近岸逐渐递减的趋势。浮游桡足类的多样性指数(H')表现为夏季>春季>秋季>冬季, 春、夏季的均匀度指数(J')明显高于秋、冬季。本调查反映出该海区的桡足类群落具有热带—亚热带区系特征, 种类组成季节更替明显, 桡足类种群受海域水温和硅藻的影响明显, 受盐度影响不明显。

关键词: 浮游桡足类, 海南岛西部, 种类组成, 丰度分布, 季节变化, 环境因子

Abstract

We analyzed the structure, distribution, and seasonal changes of planktonic copepod communities, as well as their relationships with environmental factors using data collected from 21 stations in the northwest coastal waters off Hainan Island between November 2008 and July 2009. A total of 44 species of planktonic copepods was identified, with 25, 23, 22, and 23 species found in autumn (November), winter (January), spring (April) and summer (July), respectively. The dominant species were mainly warm water species, such as Canthocalanus pauper, Subeucalanus subcrassus, Temora turbinate, Acartia spinicauda, Calanopia elliptica and Euchaeta concinna, etc. There were significant changes in copepod abundance among seasons; total copepod abundance was highest in winter with 409 ind./m3, followed by autumn with 144 ind./m3, spring with 55 ind./m3 and summer with 17 ind./m3, respectively. Distributional data showed that an area of high copepod density appeared in the southern portion of the study area in winter, while there was an area of high copepod density in the center of the survey area in autumn. Copepod abundance was higher in deeper waters, and lower in the coastal areas in spring and summer. Species diversity index was highest in summer and followed by spring, autumn and winter in turn. The evenness index of spring and summer copepod communities was higher than those of autumn and winter. The structure of these planktonic copepod communities reflects tropical and subtropical floristic characteristics. Species composition varied significantly with season, and copepod abundance was noticeably affected by water temperature and diatom cell abundance. We detected no obvious correlationship between copepod abundance and salinity.

Key words: planktonic copepod, western Hainan Island, species composition, abundance distribution, seasonal variation, environmental factors