生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (5): 596-605.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020133

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推进生物多样性保护与人类健康的共同发展——One Health

李彬彬()   

  1. 昆山杜克大学环境研究中心, 江苏昆山 215316
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-31 接受日期:2020-03-31 出版日期:2020-05-20 发布日期:2020-06-19
  • 通讯作者: 李彬彬

Creating synergy between biodiversity conservation and human health — One Health

Binbin V Li()   

  1. Environmental Research Center, Duke Kunshan University, Kunshan, Jiangsu 215316
  • Received:2020-03-31 Accepted:2020-03-31 Online:2020-05-20 Published:2020-06-19
  • Contact: Binbin V Li

摘要:

随着新冠肺炎(COVID-19)的暴发, 野生动物、生物多样性和人类健康的关系再次引起广泛讨论。近20年来, 国际社会对于生物多样性与健康的研究日益增多, 并将它作为生物多样性保护与研究的重要方向之一。One Health作为一个新的理念框架, 通过交叉学科的研究和行动来推动包括人、所有其他动物及环境的健康。这个理念被不同国家、国际组织及协定所接纳及推广, 包括《生物多样性公约》等。本文通过总结近些年生物多样性对健康的影响方式、One Health的定义与发展历史、进入生物多样性议程的过程, 提出中国应用One Health改进相关野生动物管理以降低公共卫生危机的可能性的建议, 以及One Health框架内增强生物多样性保护所需的研究方向。One Health在中国的应用与发展应重视生物多样性研究和保护在其中的作用, 利用在景观生态学、群落内物种关系动态变化、气候变化影响、土地利用变化模式与趋势的研究, 与人类健康相结合, 提高One Health在应对公共健康和环境健康风险方面的准确性与及时性。同时, 需要加强我国在野生动物管理方面的投入和力度, 增强生物多样性保护与公共健康的联系, 将预警与干预措施前移, 减少疾病暴发带来的社会经济成本。

关键词: 生物多样性, 公共卫生, One Health, 野生动物管理

Abstract:

With the pandemic of COVID-19, the linkage between wildlife, biodiversity and human health has drawn tremendous attention from the public. In the recent 20 years, there has been growing interest from the international community to understand how biodiversity influences human health, which has become one of the crucial directions to promote biodiversity conservation and research. At the same time, One Health, as a new concept and framework, promotes interdisciplinary research and action to improve the health of humans, animals and the environment altogether. This concept has been adopted and promoted by various countries and international organizations, including the Convention on Biological Conservation. This paper summarizes major pathways of how biodiversity influences human health, the definition and history of One Health, the incorporation of One Health into the biodiversity conservation agenda. In the end, using the One Health framework, this paper suggests ways to improve China’s current wildlife management system to reduce the probability of potential public health crisis. This paper also identifies some key research gaps in enhancing the role of biodiversity in protecting human health. The implementation of One Health in China should emphasize the importance of biodiversity research and conservation. By integrating research on landscape ecology, community and species interactions, climate change impacts, land-cover and land-use change with that on human health, One Health can improve its efficiency in addressing risks of public health and environmental health. At the same time, China should invest more resources in wildlife management, reinforce the linkage between biodiversity conservation and human health, and prevent and control epidemics from their very beginning.

Key words: biodiversity, public health, One Health, wildlife management