生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (2): 219-225.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019306

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    下一篇

贵州麻阳河国家级自然保护区红外相机鸟兽监测

杨雄威1, 2, 吴安康3, 邹启先3, 李光容1, 张明明1, 2, 胡灿实1, 粟海军1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 贵州大学生物多样性与自然保护研究中心, 贵阳 550025
    2 贵州大学林学院, 贵阳 550025
    3 贵州麻阳河国家级自然保护区管理局, 贵州沿河 565300
  • 收稿日期:2019-09-26 接受日期:2020-03-04 出版日期:2020-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 粟海军 E-mail:hjsu@gzu.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    2018年中央林业改革发展资金国家级自然保护区补助校地科技合作项目、国家自然科学基金(31860610);贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合平台人才[2018]5781号);生态环境部生物多样性保护专项(2110404);贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合支撑[2019]2842号、黔科合平台人才[2018]5781-39号)

Field monitoring of mammals and birds using infrared cameras in Mayanghe National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China

Xiongwei Yang1, 2, Ankang Wu3, Qixian Zou3, Guangrong Li1, Mingming Zhang1, 2, Canshi Hu1, Haijun Su1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 Research Center for Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025
    2 College of Forestry, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025
    3 Mayanghe National Nature Reserve Administration, Yanhe, Guizhou 565300
  • Received:2019-09-26 Accepted:2020-03-04 Online:2020-02-20
  • Contact: Haijun Su E-mail:hjsu@gzu.edu.cn

为进一步查清贵州麻阳河国家级自然保护区鸟兽多样性, 丰富生物编目, 我们于2018年7月至2019年8月利用红外相机进行公里网格全境布设监测。共记录兽类5目10科18属20种、鸟类7目18科34属42种, 其中新增保护区记录11种, 记录国家I级重点保护野生动物2种, 分别是黑叶猴(Trachypithecus francoisi)和白颈长尾雉(Syrmaticus ellioti), 国家II级重点保护野生动物大灵猫(Viverra zibetha)、白冠长尾雉(Syrmaticus reevesii)等7种。相对多度指数计算结果表明, 小麂(Muntiacus reevesi)、猪獾(Arctonyx collaris)和野猪(Sus scrofa)是该区域内常见兽类, 而地栖雉类则以红腹锦鸡(Chrysolophus pictus)和灰胸竹鸡(Bambusicola thoracicus)为主。分时段的相对多度指标表明, 小麂在6:00-15:00和17:00-21:00两个时段均保持活跃, 猪獾则偏好5:00-6:00和19:00-23:00活动, 野猪在6:00-7:00最为活跃, 红腹锦鸡活动高峰在12:00-13:00, 而灰胸竹鸡的活动高峰分别为14:00-15:00和16:00-17:00。在物种丰度上, 单个相机位点的平均拍摄物种数显示, 在缓冲区、灌丛及针阔混交林以及800-1,200 m海拔段上物种较多。监测结果有利于进一步掌握此区域的动物多样性资源并促进资源的保护与管理。

关键词: 红外相机监测, 鸟兽多样性, 生物编目, 活动节律, 麻阳河国家级自然保护区

To characterize the mammal and bird diversity and enrich the bio-inventory resources of Mayanghe, a national nature reserve in Guizhou Province, China, a year-around field monitoring study was conducted by means of camera-trapping via an installation scheme of a kilometer grid across the whole region, from July 2018 to August 2019. We identified up to 20 species of mammals (taxonomically belonging to 5 orders, 10 families, 18 genera) and 42 species of birds (7 orders, 18 families, 34 genera). Among them, 11 species were newly recorded in the nature reserve, and 2 species (Trachypithecus francoisi and Syrmaticus ellioti) are Class I, 7 species are Class II national protected animals including Viverra zibetha, Syrmaticus reevesii, etc. Based on the general relative abundance index (RAI) of photographed species, Muntiacus reevesi, Arctonyx collaris, and Sus scrofa were common mammals in this region, while Chrysolophus pictus and Bambusicola thoracicus were the most frequently photographed terrestrial birds. The time-period RAI revealed Muntiacus reevesi can keep active in the periods of 6:00-15:00 and 17:00-21:00 in this region. Arctonyx collaris preferred to be active in the early morning (5:00-6:00) and night (19:00-23:00), while Sus scrofa was most active from 6:00 to 7:00. Comparatively, pheasants frequently moved at noon or in the afternoon. Chrysolophus pictus had its highest activity peak from 12:00 to 13:00, and Bambusicola thoracicus had two activity periods, one from 14:00-15:00 and another from 16:00-17:00. Species richness measured by the average captured species per camera, indicated that mammals and birds were relatively abundant in the buffer zone, shrub, and coniferous-broad-leaved mixed forest, as well as in elevation ranges of 800-1,200 m. Our results are useful for understanding current biodiversity and promoting the conservation management in this region.

Key words: camera trapping, mammal and bird diversity, biodiversity inventory, activity rhythm, Mayanghe National Nature Reserve

图1

麻阳河国家级自然保护区位置及红外相机布设位点。A: 保护区在中国武陵山生物多样性保护优先区位置; B: 监测地景观; C: 保护区功能分区及红外相机布设位点"

图2

麻阳河国家级自然保护区红外相机监测物种累积曲线"

图3

麻阳河国家级自然保护区主要鸟兽物种日活动节律。A: 兽类; B: 鸟类。"

表1

麻阳河国家级自然保护区不同功能分区、生境和海拔的相机位点分布及拍摄物种数量"

项目
Items
相机位点数
Number of
camera sites
总照片数
Total photographs
独立有效照片数
Number of
independent photographs
物种数
Number of
captured species
单个相机位点平均拍摄物种数
Mean species number per camera (mean ± SD)
功能分区 Functional zone
核心区 Core zone 45 11,749 2,083 33 6.52 ± 3.60
缓冲区 Buffer zone 46 20,073 2,448 48 7.24 ± 4.27
实验区 Experimental zone 39 9,394 1,529 41 6.59 ± 4.45
植被类型 Vegetation type
常绿阔叶林 Evergreen broad-leaved forest 22 7,157 756 22 5.73 ± 3.66
灌丛 Shrub 6 3,763 701 27 10.00 ± 6.88
落叶阔叶林 Deciduous broad-leaved forest 16 4,150 825 32 6.81 ± 4.32
针阔混交林 Coniferous-broad-leaved mixed forest 40 15,822 2,230 42 7.29 ± 4.03
针叶林 Coniferous forest 43 9,930 1,492 44 6.63 ± 3.44
竹林 Bamboo forest 2 349 51 9 5.00 ± 4.00
海拔 Elevation (m)
< 400 4 648 148 13 6.25 ± 4.55
400-800 52 13,123 2,192 44 6.79 ± 4.40
800-1,200 64 25,734 3,467 55 6.97 ± 3.89
> 1,200 10 1,711 253 22 5.90 ± 3.70
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