生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (6): 683-688.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018347

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    下一篇

贵州习水国家级自然保护区红外相机鸟兽监测及活动节律分析

穆君1,王娇娇2,3,张雷1,李云波1,李筑眉4,粟海军2,3,*()   

  1. 1 贵州习水国家级自然保护区管理局, 贵州习水 564600
    2 贵州大学林学院, 贵阳 550025
    3 贵州大学生物多样性与自然保护研究中心, 贵阳 550025
    4 贵州生物研究所, 贵阳 550009
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-31 接受日期:2019-04-24 出版日期:2019-06-20 发布日期:2019-06-20
  • 通讯作者: 粟海军
  • 基金资助:
    贵州省林业科研课题(黔林科合[2013]4号);习水自然保护区红外相机监测科技支撑校地合作项目;黔科合重大专项字[2016]3022-1号;国家自然科学基金(31860610);贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合支撑[2019]2842号)

Field monitoring using infrared cameras and activity rhythm analysis on mammals and birds in Xishui National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China

Mu Jun1,Wang Jiaojiao2,3,Zhang Lei1,Li Yunbo1,Li Zhumei4,Su Haijun2,3,*()   

  1. 1 Guizhou Xishui National Nature Reserve Administration Bureau, Xishui, Guizhou 564600
    2 College of Forestry, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025
    3 Research Center for Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025
    4 Guizhou Institute of Biology, Guiyang 550009
  • Received:2018-12-31 Accepted:2019-04-24 Online:2019-06-20 Published:2019-06-20
  • Contact: Su Haijun

摘要:

2015年7月至2017年11月, 我们利用红外相机对贵州习水国家级自然保护区的鸟类及兽类进行监测。结果表明: (1)共记录到鸟类5目20科56种、兽类5目12科28种, 其中国家I级重点保护动物有林麝(Moschus berezovskii), 国家II级重点保护动物有红腹角雉(Tragopan temminckii)、白鹇(Lophura nycthemera)、鹰雕(Nisaetus nipalensis)、中华鬣羚(Capricornis milneedwardsii)等13种。鹰雕为贵州省新记录, 白腹锦鸡(Chrysolophus amherstiae)、白眉鸫(Turdus obscurus)等10种为保护区新记录。(2)从中国动物地理区划来看, 保护区物种以东洋型(41.67%)为主, 南中国型(29.76%)次之; 东北型(2.38%)最少。(3)区内4种主要兽类中, 毛冠鹿(Elaphodus cephalophus)主要在傍晚活动; 赤腹松鼠(Callosciurus erythraeus)日活动节律呈季节性变化, 春秋季集中在午间活动, 夏季集中在早上活动, 冬季则呈现活动双峰, 分别是在8:00-10:00及16:00-18:00之间; 豪猪(Hystrix brachyura)主要在20:00-24:00之间活动; 藏酋猴(Macaca thibetana)秋冬季集中在14:00-16:00活动, 而春季则在早上10:00-12:00之间较活跃, 夏季也有2个活动高峰, 分别是在12:00-14:00及16:00-18:00。2种主要雉类的活动节律明显不同, 红腹锦鸡(Chrysolophus pictus)春夏季都较为集中在午间活动, 而秋季主要在6:00-8:00之间; 红腹角雉春夏两季活动高峰在早上, 秋冬季则是在14:00-16:00之间活动频繁。本监测结果有利于进一步了解和促进此区域的生物多样性及其保护。

关键词: 红外相机陷阱技术, 野生动物监测, 生物编目, 活动节律, 习水国家级自然保护区

Abstract:

In order to further enrich the regional bio-inventories of mammals and birds for the Wulingshan Priority Area for Biodiversity Conservation of China (WPABCC), we monitored mammals and birds using infrared cameras in Xishui National Nature Reserve (XNNR) in Guizhou Province from July 2015 to November 2017. From the camera data, a total of 56 avian species were classified into 5 orders and 20 families, and 28 mammal species were classified into 5 orders and 12 families. One species, Moschus berezovskii is listed as a first-level species on the China National Key List for Wildlife Protection, and 13 species including Tragopan temminckii, Lophura nycthemera, Nisaetus nipalensis, and Capricornis milneedwardsii, are listed as second-level. Nisaetus nipalensis was newly recorded in this area and 10 species including Chrysolophus amherstiae, and Turdus obscurus were recorded for the first time in XNNR. According to the zoogeographic regionalization of China, the Oriental Region Type was dominant (41.67%), Southern China Region Type followed (29.76%), and Northeastern Region Type was the lowest (2.38%). The activity rhythm analysis of four dominant mammals and two dominant avian species revealed that, in mammals, Elaphodus cephalophus was more active in the evening as expected, but became active earlier in winter. The daily activity rhythm of Callosciurus erythraeus varied with seasons becoming more active at noon in spring and autumn, and in the mornings in summer. In winter, it showed two activity peaks, from 8:00 to 10:00 and from 16:00 to 18:00. Hystrix brachyura always moved frequently between 20:00-24:00 in all seasons and Macaca thibetana was active from 14:00 to 16:00 in autumn and winter, and from 10:00 to 12:00 in spring, in summer, it also had two activity peaks, from 12:00 to 14:00 and from 16:00 to 18:00. In birds, Chrysolophus pictus was active at noon in spring and summer, but from 6:00 to 8:00 in autumn; comparatively, Tragopan temminckii was more active in the morning in spring and summer, and from 14:00 to 16:00 in autumn and winter. Our results would be helpful to further understand the biodiversity and improve its conservation in this area.

Key words: infrared camera-tapping technology, wildlife monitoring, biodiversity inventory, activity rhythm, Xishui National Nature Reserve