生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (3): 333-339.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019235

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

重度砍伐后极小种群野生植物崖柏群落结构动态

赵志霞1, 2, 赵常明2, 邓舒雨2, 3, 申国珍2, 3, 谢宗强2, 3, 熊高明2, *(), 李俊清1, *()   

  1. 1. 北京林业大学森林资源生态系统过程北京市重点实验室, 北京 100083
    2. 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    3. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-25 接受日期:2019-10-08 出版日期:2020-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 熊高明,李俊清 E-mail:xgm@ibcas.ac.cn;lijq@bjfu.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0503100);“极小种群野生植物生存潜力与维持机制研究”课题(2016YFC0503101);国家科技基础性工作专项(2015FY1103002)

Community structure and dynamics of a remnant forest dominated by Thuja sutchuenensis after deforestation

Zhixia Zhao1, 2, Changming Zhao2, Shuyu Deng2, 3, Guozhen Shen2, 3, Zongqiang Xie2, 3, Gaoming Xiong2, *(), Junqing Li1, *()   

  1. 1. Beijing Key Laboratory for Forest Resources and Ecosystem Processes, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    2. State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2019-07-25 Accepted:2019-10-08 Online:2020-03-20
  • Contact: Gaoming Xiong,Junqing Li E-mail:xgm@ibcas.ac.cn;lijq@bjfu.edu.cn

砍伐导致濒危植物种群个体数量减少, 群落结构改变, 加剧物种灭绝风险。崖柏(Thuja sutchuenensis)为典型极小种群野生植物, 森林砍伐是导致其种群数量急剧下降的主要原因。但是, 到目前为止, 有关崖柏种群及其群落对砍伐的响应鲜有报道。本研究以重度砍伐后的崖柏群落为研究对象, 基于对崖柏群落固定样地的调查和两次复查, 对比分析了伐后崖柏种群径级结构、种群生存力、物种多样性及其群落结构动态等特征。结果表明: 崖柏残存群落伐后13年崖柏种群个体数量增加了22.58%, 其中幼苗幼树占85.71%, 而崖柏种群生存率下降25.43%, 种群死亡密度和危险率分别增加了24.12%和28.62%。崖柏群落物种丰富度和Shannon-Wiener指数分别增加96.43%和33.35%。研究结果表明, 砍伐使崖柏种群生存力及其在群落中的优势度持续下降, 崖柏占优势的针阔混交林有向阔叶林演替的趋势, 崖柏种群受到严重威胁, 亟需采取紧急保护措施。

关键词: 砍伐, 崖柏, 极小种群野生植物, 种群生存力, 群落结构动态

As forests are destroyed, remaining habitats may have too little area to sustain viable populations as extinction follows forest loss or fragmentation. Thuja sutchuenensisis, a typical Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations (WPESP), once been declared extinct in the wild, were rediscovered in 1999. However, recent deforestation is a major threat to T. sutchuenensisis survival. Few studies have explored community responses by T. sutchuenensisis to long-term logging. Here, we quantified the population size, population viability, and community composition of the remaining T. sutchuenensisis forests following illegal and severe logging, based on three surveyed datasets on the permanent plots in 2004, 2010 and 2016, respectively. The results show that remaining T. sutchuenensisis seedlings and saplings had increased by 85.71% after 13 years of illegal logging. The population survival rate of T. sutchuenensisis decreased by 25.43%, in contrast, the death density and extinction risk rate increased by 24.12% and 28.62%, respectively. Meanwhile the species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index of the community showed an increase with 96.43% and 33.35% after 13 years of logging. The results demonstrate that the population viability and the dominance of T. sutchuenensisis in the remaining community show strong decline, and the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by T. sutchuenensisis is likely to be replaced by broad-leaved forest. Our results also have important implications for small population conservation, given that the remaining forest may play a unique role in the persistence of T. sutchuenensisis.

Key words: deforestation, Thuja sutchuenensis, Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations (WPESP), population viability, community structure dynamics

图1

崖柏种群径级结构"

图2

幼苗幼树更新比"

图3

崖柏种群生存力。Si为生存率; Fi为累积死亡率; fti为死亡密度; λti为危险率。"

表1

2004-2016年各变量非参数Friedman方差分析"

自由度
Degree of freedom
平方和
Sum of squares
均方
Mean square
F P
物种丰富度 Species richness 2 91.13 91.13 7.78 0.022*
Shannon-Wiener指数 Shannon-Wiener index 2 0.634 0.634 6.948 0.039*
崖柏重要值 Importance value of Thuja sutchuenensis 2 336.5 336.5 4.517 0.018*
针叶树种重要值 Importance value of conifer species 2 500.1 500.1 4.099 0.105
常绿树种重要值 Importance value of evergreen species 2 10.8 10.77 0.152 0.716

图4

崖柏群落物种丰富度(A)和Shannon-Wiener指数(B)。 不同字母表示差异显著(P < 0.05)。"

图5

群落中崖柏(A)、针叶树种(B)和常绿树种(C)重要值。 不同字母表示差异显著(P < 0.05)。"

表2

2004-2016年主要乔木物种重要值"

物种 Species 重要值 Importance value (%)
2004 2010 2016
崖柏 Thuja sutchuenensis 33.74 30.99 22.09
铁杉 Tsuga chinensis 18.03 16.89 12.73
刺叶高山栎 Quercus spinosa 14.22 10.18 12.30
粉白杜鹃 Rhododendron hypoglaucum 11.05 13.02 15.17
川陕鹅耳枥 Carpinus fargesiana 5.39 3.52 1.88
吊钟花 Enkianthus quinqueflorus 4.61 3.14 1.71
红柄木犀 Osmanthus armatus 3.70 2.96 2.57
小花八角 Illicium micranthum 3.68 2.50 2.16
云南冬青 Ilex yunnanensis 3.67 1.58 1.98
华西花楸 Sorbus wilsoniana 1.90 1.23 1.80
1 Amici V, Santi E, Filibeck G, Diekmann M, Geri F, Landi S, Scoppola A, Chiarucci A ( 2013) Influence of secondary forest succession on plant diversity patterns in a Mediterranean landscape. Journal of Biogeography, 40, 2335-2347.
doi: 10.1111/jbi.12182
2 Bataineh M, Kenefic L, Weiskittel A, Wagner R, Brissette J ( 2013) Influence of partial harvesting and site factors on the abundance and composition of natural regeneration in the Acadian forest of Maine, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 306, 96-106.
doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2013.06.016
3 Berenguer E, Ferreira J, Gardner TA, Aragao LEOC, Decamargo PB, Cerri CE, Durigan M, Deoliveira RC, Vieira ICG, Barlow J ( 2014) A large-scale field assessment of carbon stocks in human-modified tropical forests. Global Change Biology, 20, 3713-3726.
doi: 10.1111/gcb.12627
4 Gomes VHF, Vieira ICG, Salomao RP, Steege H ( 2019) Amazonian tree species threatened by deforestation and climate change. Nature Climate Change, 9, 547-553.
doi: 10.1038/s41558-019-0500-2
5 Hansen MC, Potapov PV, Moore R, Hancher M, Turubanova SA, Tyukavina A, Thau D, Stehman SV, Goetz SJ, Loveland TR, Kommareddy A, Egorov A, Chini L, Justice CO, Townshend JRG ( 2013) High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change. Science, 342, 850-853.
doi: 10.1126/science.1244693
6 Harmer R, Peterken G, Kerr G, Poulton P ( 2001) Vegetation changes during 100 years of development of two secondary woodlands on abandoned arable land. Biological Conservation, 101, 291-304.
doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00072-6
7 Jiang ZG, Ma KP ( 2014) The Principle of Conservation Biology. Science Press, Beijing.(in Chinese)
[ 蒋志刚, 马克平 ( 2014) 保护生物学原理. 科学出版社, 北京.]
8 Lennox GD, Gardner TA, Thomson JR, Ferreira J, Berenguer E, Lees AC, Mac NR, Aragao LEOC, Ferraz SFB, Louzada J, Moura NG, Oliveira VHF, Pardini R, Solar RRC, Mello FZV, Vieira ICG, Barlow J ( 2018) Second rate or a second chance? Assessing biomass and biodiversity recovery in regenerating Amazonian forests. Global Change Biology, 24, 5680-5694.
doi: 10.1111/gcb.14443 pmid: 30216600
9 Li W, Zhang GF ( 2015) Population structure and spatial pattern of the endemic and endangered subtropical tree Parrotia subaequalis (Hamamelidaceae). Flora, 212, 10-18.
doi: 10.1016/j.flora.2015.02.002
10 Li XK, Su ZM, Xiang WS, Ning SJ, Tang RQ, Ou ZL, Li RT ( 2002) Study on the structure and spatial pattern of the endangered plant population of Abies yuanbaoshanensis. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 22, 2246-2253. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 李先琨, 苏宗明, 向悟生, 宁世江, 唐润琴, 欧祖兰, 李瑞棠 ( 2002) 濒危植物元宝山冷杉种群结构与分布格局. 生态学报, 22, 2246-2253.]
11 Liu JF, Shi SQ, Chang EM, Yang WJ, Jiang ZP ( 2013) Genetic diversity of the critically endangered Thuja sutchuenensis revealed by ISSR markers and the implications for conservation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14, 14860-14871.
doi: 10.3390/ijms140714860
12 Liu JF, Xiao WF, Guo ZH, Jiang ZP, Liu ZY ( 2004) A preliminary study on population structure and dynamics of a rare and endangered plant, Thuja sutchuenensis (Cupressaceae). Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Jiangxiensis, 26, 377-380. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 刘建锋, 肖文发, 郭志华, 江泽平, 刘正宇 ( 2004) 珍稀濒危植物——崖柏种群结构与动态初步研究. 江西农业大学学报, 26, 377-380.]
13 Liu XL, Guo X, Zhang ZX, Zhang SQ, Wang D ( 2015) Morphological observation on strobilus and seed cones of an endangered plant, Thuja sutchuenensis Franch. Journal of Central China Normal University (Natural Sciences), 49, 424-427. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 刘学利, 郭璇, 张中信, 张世强, 王东 ( 2015) 崖柏球花和球果形态特征的补充描述. 华中师范大学学报(自然科学版), 49, 424-427.]
14 Magnago LFS, Magrach A, Laurance WF, Martins SV, Meira NJAA, Simonelli M, Edwards DP ( 2015) Would protecting tropical forest fragments provide carbon and biodiversity cobenefits under REDD plus? Global Change Biology, 21, 3455-3468.
doi: 10.1111/gcb.12937 pmid: 25832015
15 Montoya D, Alburquerque FS, Rueda M, Rodriguez MA ( 2010) Species’ response patterns to habitat fragmentation: Do trees support the extinction threshold hypothesis? Oikos, 119, 1335-1343.
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18280.x
16 Okuda T, Suzuki M, Adachi N, Quah ES, Hussein NA, Manokaran N ( 2003) Effect of selective logging on canopy and stand structure and tree species composition in a lowland dipterocarp forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Forest Ecology and Management, 175, 297-320.
doi: 10.1016/S0378-1127(02)00137-8
17 Peng D, Wang XQ ( 2008) Reticulate evolution in Thuja inferred from multiple gene sequences: Implications for the study of biogeographical disjunction between Eastern Asia and North America. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 47, 1190-1202.
doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2008.02.001 pmid: 18346917
18 Qin HN, Zhao LN, Yu SX, Liu HY, Liu B, Xia NH, Peng H, Li ZY, Zhang ZX, He XJ, Yin LK, Lin YL, Liu QR, Hou YT, Liu Y, Liu QX, Cao W, Li JQ, Chen SL, Jin XH, Gao TG, Chen WL, Ma HY, Geng YY, Jin XF, Chang CY, Jiang H, Cai L, Zang CX, Wu JY, Ye JF, Lai YJ, Liu B, Lin QW, Xue NX ( 2017) Evaluating the endangerment status of China’s angiosperms through the red list assessment. Biodiversity Science, 25, 745-757. (in Chinese with English abstract)
doi: 10.17520/biods.2017156
[ 覃海宁, 赵莉娜, 于胜祥, 刘慧圆, 刘博, 夏念和, 彭华, 李振宇, 张志翔, 何兴金, 尹林克, 林余霖, 刘全儒, 侯元同, 刘演, 刘启新, 曹伟, 李建强, 陈世龙, 金效华, 高天刚, 陈文俐, 马海英, 耿玉英, 金孝锋, 常朝阳, 蒋宏, 蔡蕾, 臧春鑫, 武建勇, 叶建飞, 赖阳均, 刘冰, 林秦文, 薛纳新 ( 2017) 中国被子植物濒危等级的评估. 生物多样性, 25, 745-757.]
doi: 10.17520/biods.2017156
19 Ren H, Zhang QM, Lu HF, Liu HX, Guo QF, Wang J, Jian SG, Bao HO ( 2012) Wild plant species with extremely small populations require conservation and reintroduction in China. Ambio, 41, 913-917.
doi: 10.1007/s13280-012-0284-3 pmid: 22562355
20 Resende RT, Marcatti GE, Pinto DS, Takahashi EK, Cruz CD, Resende MDV ( 2016) Intra-genotypic competition of Eucalyptus clones generated by environmental heterogeneity can optimize productivity in forest stands. Forest Ecology and Management, 380, 50-58.
doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2016.08.041
21 Reynolds JH, Ford ED ( 2005) Improving competition representation in theoretical models of self-thinning: A critical review. Journal of Ecology, 93, 362-372.
doi: 10.1111/jec.2005.93.issue-2
22 Rocha SL, Pessoa MS, Cassano CR, Talora DC, Orihuela RLL, Mariano NE, Morante JC, Faria D, Cazetta E ( 2016) The shrinkage of a forest: Landscape-scale deforestation leading to overall changes in local forest structure. Biological Conservation, 196, 1-9.
doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2016.01.028
23 Ruprecht E, Enyedi MZ, Eckstein RL, Donath TW ( 2010) Restorative removal of plant litter and vegetation 40 years after abandonment enhances re-emergence of steppe grassland vegetation. Biological Conservation, 143, 449-456.
doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2009.11.012
24 Silvertown JW ( 1982) Introduction to Plant Population Ecology. Longman Group United Kingdom, London.
25 Sun WB, Yang WZ ( 2013) Conserving Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations (PSESP) in Yunnan. Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming.
(in Chinese) [ 孙卫邦, 杨文忠 ( 2013) 云南省极小种群野生植物保护实践与探索. 云南科技出版社, 昆明.]
26 Tang CQ, Yang YC, Ohsawa M, Momohara A, Yi SR, Robertson K, Song K, Zhang SQ, He LY ( 2015) Community structure and survival of Tertiary relict Thuja sutchuenensis (Cupressaceae) in the subtropical Daba Mountains, Southwestern China. PLoS ONE, 10, e0125307.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125307 pmid: 25928845
27 Wang X, Liu Q, Huang Q, Zhang HY, Li ZF, Zhang SQ, Deng HP ( 2017) Niche characteristics and CCA ordination of dominant species of Thuja sutchuenensis community. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 39(8), 60-67. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 王鑫, 刘钦, 黄琴, 张华雨, 李宗峰, 张世强, 邓洪平 ( 2017) 崖柏群落优势种生态位及CCA排序分析. 北京林业大学学报, 39(8), 60-67.]
28 Wang X, Zhang HY, Li ZF, Zhang SQ, Wang GX, Deng HP ( 2016) Community structure and population regeneration of an endangered plant, Thuja sutchuenensis. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 38(10), 28-37. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 王鑫, 张华雨, 李宗峰, 张世强, 王国行, 邓洪平 ( 2016) 濒危植物崖柏群落特征及种群更新研究. 北京林业大学学报, 38(10), 28-37.]
29 Wright SJ, Muller LHC, Calderon O, Hernandez A ( 2005) Annual and spatial variation in seedfall and seedling recruitment in a neotropical forest. Ecology, 86, 848-860.
doi: 10.1890/03-0750
30 Yang WJ, Jiang ZP, Liu JF, Guo QS ( 2013) Diurnal photosynthetic dynamic of Thuja sutchuenensis under different light environments. Forest Research, 26, 373-378. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 杨文娟, 江泽平, 刘建锋, 郭泉水 ( 2013) 不同光环境下濒危植物崖柏的光合日动态. 林业科学研究, 26, 373-378.]
31 Yang WZ, Xiang ZY, Zhang SS, Kang HM, Shi FQ ( 2015) Plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP) and their significance in China’s national plant conservation strategy. Biodiversity Science, 23, 419-425. (in Chinese with English abstract)
doi: 10.17520/biods.2014183
[ 杨文忠, 向振勇, 张珊珊, 康洪梅, 史富强 ( 2015) 极小种群野生植物的概念及其对我国野生植物保护的影响. 生物多样性, 23, 419-425.]
doi: 10.17520/biods.2014183
32 Zhong ZQ ( 2016) Analysis of community competition for tree layer of Castanopsis carlesii natural secondary forests in northern Fujian. Journal of Beihua University (Natural Science), 17, 674-678. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 钟兆全 ( 2016) 闽北米槠天然次生林乔木层群落竞争关系分析. 北华大学学报(自然科学版), 17, 674-678.]
33 Zhu L, Guo QS, Zhu NN, Qin AL, Xu GX, Xing JC ( 2014) Study on the cones and seeds biological characteristic of a critically endangered species, Thuja sutchuenensis, in the world. Seed, 33, 56-59. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 朱莉, 郭泉水, 朱妮妮, 秦爱丽, 许格希, 邢继畴 ( 2014) 世界级极危物种——崖柏的球果和种子性状研究. 种子, 33, 56-59.]
[1] 宋垚彬, 徐力, 段俊鹏, 张卫军, 申屠晓露, 李天翔, 臧润国, 董鸣. (2020) 西藏极小种群野生植物密叶红豆杉种群的性比及雌雄空间格局. 生物多样性, 28(3): 269-276.
[2] 王世彤, 徐耀粘, 杨腾, 魏新增, 江明喜. (2020) 微生境对黄梅秤锤树野生种群叶片功能性状的影响. 生物多样性, 28(3): 277-288.
[3] 路兴慧, 臧润国, 丁易, 黄继红, 许玥. (2020) 极小种群野生植物坡垒的生境特征及其对幼苗多度的影响. 生物多样性, 28(3): 289-295.
[4] 陈冬东,李镇清. (2020) 极小种群野生植物生存力分析: 方法、问题与展望. 生物多样性, 28(3): 358-366.
[5] 邓莎,吴艳妮,吴坤林,房林,李琳,曾宋君. (2020) 14种中国典型极小种群野生植物繁育特性和人工繁殖研究进展. 生物多样性, 28(3): 385-400.
[6] 苏金源,燕语,李冲,李丹,杜芳. (2020) 通过遗传多样性探讨极小种群野生植物的致濒机理及保护策略: 以裸子植物为例. 生物多样性, 28(3): 376-384.
[7] 王世彤, 吴浩, 刘梦婷, 张佳鑫, 刘检明, 孟红杰, 徐耀粘, 乔秀娟, 魏新增, 卢志军, 江明喜. (2018) 极小种群野生植物黄梅秤锤树群落结构与动态. 生物多样性, 26(7): 749-759.
[8] 张则瑾, 郭焱培, 贺金生, 唐志尧. (2018) 中国极小种群野生植物的保护现状评估. 生物多样性, 26(6): 572-577.
[9] 李玲娟, 熊勤犁, 潘开文, 张林. (2015) 土壤原生动物对川滇高山栎恢复时间的响应及生长季动态. 生物多样性, 23(6): 793-801.
[10] 李增加, 马友鑫, 李红梅, 彭明春, 刘文俊. (2008) 西双版纳土地利用/覆盖变化与地形的关系. 植物生态学报, 32(5): 1091-1103.
[11] 李义明. (2003) 种群生存力分析:准确性和保护应用. 生物多样性, 11(4): 340-350.
[12] 张英, 郭良栋, 刘润进. (2003) 都江堰地区丛枝菌根真菌多样性与生态研究. 植物生态学报, 27(4): 537-544.
[13] 蒋延玲, 周广胜. (2002) 兴安落叶松林碳平衡及管理活动影响研究 (英文). 植物生态学报, 26(3): 317-322.
[14] 于登攀, 邹仁林. (1999) 海南鹿回头岸礁造礁石珊瑚群落结构动态 Ⅱ. 物种多样性. 生物多样性, 07(3): 202-207.
[15] 李欣海, 李典谟, 路宝忠, 翟天庆. (1996) 朱鹮(Nipponia nippon)种群生存力分析. 生物多样性, 04(2): 69-77.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed