生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (1): 26-40.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019153

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中国非地衣型大型子囊菌受威胁现状评估及致危因素

庄文颖1,*(),李熠1,2,郑焕娣1,曾昭清1,王新存1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院微生物研究所真菌学国家重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2. 扬州大学食品科学与工程学院, 江苏扬州 225127
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-07 接受日期:2019-06-14 出版日期:2020-01-20 发布日期:2019-10-16
  • 通讯作者: 庄文颖
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性调查评估项目(2019HJ2096001006)

Threat status of non-lichenized macro-ascomycetes in China and its threatening factors

Wenying Zhuang1,*(),Yi Li1,2,Huandi Zheng1,Zhaoqing Zeng1,Xincun Wang1   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 School of Food Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225127
  • Received:2019-05-07 Accepted:2019-06-14 Online:2020-01-20 Published:2019-10-16
  • Contact: Wenying Zhuang

摘要:

2018年5月22日是第25个国际生物多样性日, 生态环境部和中国科学院联合发布了《中国生物多样性红色名录——大型真菌卷》。子囊菌是真菌界物种数量最丰富的类群, 其中小型种类居多, 此次参评的我国非地衣型大型子囊菌(以下简称“大型子囊菌”)包括870种。评估结果表明, 我国大型子囊菌受威胁物种有24种, 其中疑似灭绝1种、极危6种、濒危3种、易危14种, 受威胁物种占评估大型子囊菌物种数的2.76%。此外, 无危的大型子囊菌189种, 占评估物种数的21.72%, 数据不足的616种, 占评估物种数的70.80%。本文对中国大型子囊菌红色名录评估的方法、过程和评估结果等进行了介绍, 对其受威胁现状、受威胁物种的区域分布、致危因素等进行了总结分析, 并提出了相应的保护措施和建议。分类学研究是进行红色名录评估的基础, 在未来相当长的一段时间里, 真菌资源调查和分类学研究仍然需要引起重视并投入资金。建议分类学工作者、保护区管理人员、业余爱好者群体和生态学家合作并广泛参与大型真菌受威胁状况的评估。

关键词: 非地衣型大型子囊菌, 红色名录, 多样性, 保护生物学

Abstract:

On May 22, 2018, the 25th International Day for Biological Diversity, a “China Biodiversity Red List—Macrofungi” was officially released by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People’s Republic of China and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The List included 870 species of non-lichenized macro-ascomycetes (as “macro-ascomycetes” below). A total of 24 species were listed as threatened including 1 Possibly Extinct, 6 Critically Endangered, 3 Endangered and 14 Vulnerable, accounting for 2.76% of the species assessed. Besides, 189 macro-ascomycetes were assessed as Least Concern and 616 as Data Deficient, accounting for 21.72% and 70.80%, respectively. The evaluation method, assessment process and results were presented herein; and the status of the China’s macro-ascomycetes, geographic distribution of the threatened species and major threatening factors were analyzed. The conservation actions and advices were also proposed. Fungal taxonomy is fundamental of and essential for evaluation of biodiversity red list of threatened species. In a relatively long period of time, field investigations and taxonomic studies are critical tasks and need continuous financial support from different sources. Future evaluations of threatened species of macrofungi in China rely on co-operations among taxonomists, workers in nature reserves, ecologists and amateurs.

Key words: non-lichenized macro-ascomycetes, red list, biodiversity, conservation biology