生物多样性

• •    

古田山次生与老龄常绿阔叶林群落特征的比较

张田田1, 王璇2, 任海保2, 余建平3, 金毅1, 钱海源3, 宋小友3, 马克平2, 于明坚1*   

  1. 1. 浙江大学生命科学学院
    2. 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室
    3. 钱江源国家公园生态资源保护中心
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-28 修回日期:2019-08-22 出版日期:2019-09-27
  • 通讯作者: 于明坚

A comparative Study on the community characteristics of secondary and old-growth evergreen broad-leaved forests in Gutianshan

Tiantian Zhang1, Xuan Wang2, Haibao Ren2, Jianping Yu3, Yi Jin1, Haiyuan Qian3, Xiaoyou Song3, Keping Ma2, Mingjian Yu1*   

  1. 1 College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058
    2 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    3 Ecological Resource Conservation Center, Qianjiangyuan National Park, Kaihua, Zhejiang 324300

  • Received:2019-02-28 Revised:2019-08-22 Online:2019-09-27
  • Contact: Mingjian Yu

常绿阔叶林为东亚亚热带地区的地带性植被, 对该地区的生物多样性维持和社会发展具有极其重要的意义。由于长期人类活动, 目前我国分布的常绿阔叶林绝大部分为次生常绿阔叶林。探究次生与老龄常绿阔叶林群落特征的差异, 有利于了解人类干扰对于亚热带常绿阔叶林的影响, 为常绿阔叶林的保护和恢复提供依据。本研究在古田山老龄与次生常绿阔叶林内共设置了29个0.04 ha样地, 比较两者在优势种组成、物种和功能多样性以及生物量等方面的差异。结果表明: (1)次生林与老龄林优势种组成相似, 二者均以甜槠(Castanopsis eyrei)、木荷(Schima superba)等典型常绿阔叶林优势种为主, 但它们在次生和老龄常绿阔叶林中的优势度次序不同。(2)整体而言, 次生林的物种Shannon-Wiener指数和功能离散度高于老龄林; 次生与老龄林的物种Bray-Curtis指数和功能S?rensen指数均无明显差别。(3)就垂直层次而言, 次生林与老龄林在物种Shannon-Wiener指数和物种β多样性的差异主要体现在乔木层和灌木层。(4)就群落结构而言, 次生林的植株密度高于老龄林, 同时在群落水平和个体水平的生物量均明显小于老龄林。上述结果表明, 人类干扰改变了古田山常绿阔叶林群落的多个重要特征, 不同群落特征的恢复过程并不同步。故对常绿阔叶林生物多样性和生态系统功能的保护和恢复需要从多个角度着手。

关键词: 老龄林, 次生林, 物种组成, α多样性, β多样性, 功能性状, 生物量, 植株密度

Evergreen broad-leaved forests (EBLFs), which are the primary zonal vegetation of subtropical East Asia, shelter high biodiversity and contribute significantly to human welfare. Today, most EBLFs are secondary growth due to long-term human activity. The few remaining old-growth EBLFs are small, scattered patches. Understanding how secondary and old-growth EBLFs differ in their community characteristics would provide guidance for their conservation and restoration. Here, we compare the dominant species composition, species and functional diversity, and aboveground biomass between old-growth (fifteen 20 m × 20 m plots) and secondary (fourteen 20 m × 20 m plots) EBLFs in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve (GNNR). We found that: (1) Both old-growth and secondary EBLFs were dominated by the same set of evergreen broad-leaved species, such as Castanopsis eyrei and Schima superba, but the species dominance order was inconsistent in the two forest types. (2) Secondary EBLFs had a higher Shannon-Wiener index value and greater functional dispersion than primary EBLFs, but neither the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index values nor the functional S?rensen index values differed greatly between secondary and primary EBLFs. (3) When considering three vertical forest layers separately, the differences in the Shannon-Wiener and Bray-Curtis indices between secondary and old-growth EBLFs were mainly reflected in the tree and shrub layers. (4) Looking at the community structure overall, the stem density was greater in secondary EBLFs than old-growth EBLFs. Additionally, the community level and the individual level biomass were both lower in secondary EBLFs than old-growth EBLFs. These findings suggest that human disturbance has changed multiple characteristics of the EBLFs in GNNR, and their recovery process has been asymmetrical. Accordingly, any conservation plans to restore the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in EBLFs should adopt a multi-faceted strategy.

Key words: old-growth forest, secondary forest, species composition, α diversity, β diversity, functional trait, biomass, stem density

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