生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (8): 854-866.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019040

• • 上一篇    下一篇

大小兴安岭地区红菇属物种多样性及其地理成分

曹槟, 李国杰, 赵瑞琳()   

  1. 中国科学院微生物研究所真菌学国家重点实验室, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-19 接受日期:2019-04-10 出版日期:2019-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 赵瑞琳 E-mail:zhaorl@im.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    科技部基础性工作专项(2014FY210400);国家自然科学基金(31500013);国家自然科学基金(31470152);北京市食用菌创新团队(BAIC05-2018)

Species diversity and geographic components of Russula from the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains

Bin Cao, Guojie Li, Ruilin Zhao()   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
  • Received:2019-02-19 Accepted:2019-04-10 Online:2019-08-20
  • Contact: Zhao Ruilin E-mail:zhaorl@im.ac.cn

红菇属(Russula)真菌广泛分布于世界各地并与多种植物根系共生形成外生菌根, 对于森林生态系统的多样性维持与群落构建具有重要的作用。我国东北大小兴安岭地区是欧亚和美洲北温带地区生物群落交流的关键地区之一, 但该地区有关外生菌根真菌的区系研究较少。本研究对采自大小兴安岭的96份红菇标本进行了形态学鉴定和ITS序列分析, 通过结合世界范围内红菇属代表性物种(146个种)的ITS序列构建了红菇属系统发育图谱。结果表明, 大小兴安岭地区红菇属有46个分类单元, 其中包括37个种和9个未定种。对大小兴安岭地区37种红菇的地理成分分析表明, 北温带分布成分有13种、温带-热带共有成分8种、欧亚成分9种、世界广布成分7种。本研究表明大小兴安岭地区的红菇具有丰富的物种多样性, 而且具有明显的北温带区系特征, 同时也具有一定的区域特殊性。

关键词: 大型真菌, 多样性, 系统发育, 地理成分

Russula fungi are widely distributed in the world, form ectomycorrhizae with plants, and play an important role in biodiversity maintenance and community assembly in forest ecosystems. The Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains of China are one of main areas in organism spreading from tropic to temperate areas in the biogeographical studies, but there are few studies on ectomycorrhizal fungi from this area. In this study, 96 specimens of Russula collected from the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains were identified by the analysis of ITS sequences and morphological characters. The phylogenetic tree was reconstructed based on ITS sequences of 146 representative Russula species from China and other countries. The results showed that there were 46 taxa of Russula in the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains, including 37 species and nine unidentified taxa. The analysis of geographical components of the 37 Russula species from the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains showed that 13 species were north temperate, eight were temperate-tropical, nine were Eurasian, and seven were cosmopolitan. This study suggests that there are high species diversity of Russula, and their dominant components are clearly north temperate but also with some unique elements.

Key words: macrofungi, diversity, phylogeny, geographic components

图1

基于ITS序列构建的最大似然树。系统树分支上的数字分别为最大似然法自检值(仅展示 ≥ 50)和贝叶斯后验概率值(仅展示 ≥ 0.90); 系统树中加粗字体代表大小兴安岭地区标本; 字母缩写EUR代表欧洲, IND代表印度, NZ代表新西兰, PAK代表巴基斯坦, USA代表美国。"

图2

大小兴安岭地区红菇属物种。A: 褪色红菇(ZRL20170581); B: 冯特奎尔氏红菇(ZRL20160132); C: 灰褐红菇(ZRL20170734); D: 黄红菇(ZRL20170195); E: 髓质红菇(ZRL20170248); F: 沼泽红菇(ZRL20170315); G: 桃红菇(ZRL20171046); H: 凯莱红菇(ZRL20170215); I: 玫瑰柄红菇(ZRL20170196); J: 细皮囊体红菇(ZRL20160069); K: 粘质红菇(ZRL20170860); L: 泥炭藓红菇(ZRL20160288)。"

图3

大小兴安岭地区红菇属物种。A: 桦红菇(ZRL20170201); B: 尖褶红菇(ZRL20160225); C: 暗红红菇(ZRL20170486); D: 解毒红菇(ZRL20170575); E: 铜色红菇(ZRL20171000); F: 全缘形红菇(ZRL20170934); G: 落叶松红菇(ZRL20170959); H: 诺尔亚红菇(ZRL20160100); I: 多色红菇(ZRL20170232)。"

表1

大小兴安岭地区红菇属的物种、生境与地理成分"

编号
Number
物种
Species
生境
Ecological
habitat
本研究标本来源(图1)
Specimen sources
(Fig. 1)
其他分布地区
Other distribution areas
文献
References
地理成分
Geographical elements
1 尖褶红菇
R. acrifolia
阔叶林
Broadleaf forest
大小兴安岭、四川
GLHM, Sichuan
欧洲
Europe
Sarnari, 2005 欧亚
Eurasian
2 烟色红菇
R. adusta
针叶林
Coniferous forest
大小兴安岭、欧洲
GLHM, Europe
北美洲、大洋洲、非洲
North America, Oceania, Africa
Singer, 1986;
Buyck, 1989
世界广布
Cosmopolitan
3 铜绿红菇
R. aeruginea
阔叶林/混交林
Broadleaf/
mixed forest
大小兴安岭、欧洲
GLHM, Europe
北美洲
North America
Singer, 1986;
李国杰, 2014
温带-热带
Temperate-
Tropical
4 怡人红菇
R. amoenolens
针叶林
Coniferous forest
大小兴安岭、欧洲
GLHM, Europe
北美洲
North America
Singer, 1986;
刘晓亮等, 2017
北温带
North temperate
5 黑紫红菇
R. atropurpurea
阔叶林/针叶林
Broadleaf/
coniferous forest
大小兴安岭
GLHM
北美洲、大洋洲、非洲、欧洲
North America, Oceania,
Africa, Europe
Buyck, 1989;
李国杰, 2014
世界广布
Cosmopolitan
6 暗红红菇
R. atrorubens
针叶林
Coniferous forest
大小兴安岭、西藏
GLHM, Xizang
欧洲
Europe
Sarnari, 2005;
刘晓亮等, 2017
欧亚
Eurasian
7 桦红菇
R. betularum
阔叶林/混交林
Broadleaf/
mixed forest
大小兴安岭、欧洲
GLHM, Europe
北美洲、非洲
North America, Africa
Buyck, 1989;
李国杰, 2014
世界广布
Cosmopolitan

表1

(续)"

编号
Number
物种
Species
生境
Ecological
habitat
本研究标本来源(图1)
Specimen sources
(Fig. 1)
其他分布地区
Other distribution areas
文献
References
地理成分
Geographical elements
8 解毒红菇
R. consobrina
针叶林
Coniferous forest
大小兴安岭、欧洲
GLHM, Europe
- - 欧亚
Eurasian
9 铜色红菇
R. cuprea
阔叶林/混交林
Broadleaf/
mixed forest
大小兴安岭、欧洲
GLHM, Europe
- - 欧亚
Eurasian
10 蓝黄红菇
R. cyanoxantha
阔叶林/混交林
Broadleaf/
mixed forest
大小兴安岭、云南、欧洲
GLHM, Yunnan, Europe
北美洲、大洋洲
North America, Oceania
Singer, 1986;
李国杰, 2014
世界广布
Cosmopolitan
11 褪色红菇
R. decolorans
针叶林/混交林
Coniferous/
mixed forest
大小兴安岭
GLHM
北美洲、欧洲
North America, Europe
Sarnari, 2005;
李国杰, 2014
北温带
North temperate
12 美味红菇
R. delica
针叶林/阔叶林
Broadleaf/
coniferous forest
大小兴安岭
GLHM
北美洲、大洋洲、欧洲
North America, Oceania, Europe
Singer, 1986;
李国杰, 2014
世界广布
Cosmopolitan
13 毒红菇
R. emetica
阔叶林/针叶林
Broadleaf/
coniferous forest
大小兴安岭
GLHM
北美洲、大洋洲、欧洲
North America, Oceania, Europe
Singer, 1986;
李国杰, 2014
世界广布
Cosmopolitan
14 臭红菇
R. foetens
针叶林/混交林
Coniferous/
mixed forest
大小兴安岭、西藏、欧洲
GLHM, Xizang, Europe
北美洲
North America
Singer, 1986;
李国杰, 2014
温带-热带
Temperate-
Tropical
15 冯特奎尔氏红菇
R. font-queri
混交林
Mixed forest
大小兴安岭、吉林、欧洲
GLHM, Jilin, Europe
北美洲
North America
Singer, 1986;
李国杰, 2014
北温带
North temperate
16 灰褐红菇
R. gracillima
针叶林/混交林
Coniferous/
mixed forest
大小兴安岭、欧洲
GLHM, Europe
北美洲
North America
Singer, 1986;
李国杰, 2014
北温带
North temperate
17 可爱红菇
R. grata
阔叶林/混交林
Broadleaf/
mixed forest
大小兴安岭、西藏
GLHM, Xizang
北美洲、欧洲
North America, Europe
Sarnari, 2005;
李国杰, 2014
温带-热带
Temperate-
Tropical
18 全缘形红菇
R. integriformis
针叶林/混交林
Coniferous/
mixed forest
大小兴安岭、吉林、欧洲
GLHM, Jilin, Europe
- - 欧亚
Eurasian
19 落叶松红菇
R. laricina
针叶林/混交林
Coniferous/
mixed forest
大小兴安岭、四川
GLHM, Sichuan
欧洲
Europe
Sarnari, 2005 欧亚
Eurasian
20 怡人色红菇
R. lepidicolor
混交林
Mixed forest
大小兴安岭、欧洲
GLHM, Europe
- - 欧亚
Eurasian
21 黄红菇
R. lutea
阔叶林/针叶林
Broadleaf/
coniferous forest
大小兴安岭
GLHM
北美洲、欧洲
North America, Europe
Singer, 1986;
Sarnari, 2005
温带-热带
Temperate-
Tropical
22 绒紫红菇
R. mariae
阔叶林
Broadleaf forest
大小兴安岭、北美洲
GLHM, North America
大洋洲
Oceania
Singer, 1986 世界广布
Cosmopolitan
23 髓质红菇
R. medullata
混交林
Mixed forest
大小兴安岭
GLHM
北美洲、欧洲
North America, Europe
Singer, 1986;
Sarnari, 2005
北温带
North temperate
24 诺尔亚红菇
R. nuoljae
针叶林
Coniferous forest
大小兴安岭
GLHM
欧洲
Europe
Sarnari, 2005;
刘晓亮等, 2017
欧亚
Eurasian
25 沼泽红菇
R. paludosa
针叶林
Coniferous forest
大小兴安岭、吉林、欧洲
GLHM, Jilin, Europe
北美洲
North America
Singer, 1986;
李国杰, 2014
温带-热带
Temperate-
Tropical
26 桃红菇
R. persicina
针叶林
Coniferous forest
大小兴安岭
GLHM
北美洲、欧洲
North America, Europe
Singer, 1986;
Sarnari, 2005
北温带
North temperate
27 凯莱红菇
R. queletii
混交林
Mixed forest
大小兴安岭、四川、欧洲
GLHM, Sichuan, Europe
北美洲
North America
李国杰, 2014 北温带
North temperate
28 玫瑰柄红菇
R. roseipes
针叶林
Coniferous forest
大小兴安岭、欧洲
GLHM, Europe
北美洲
North America
Singer, 1986;
李国杰, 2014
北温带
North temperate

表1

(续)"

编号
Number
物种
Species
生境
Ecological
habitat
本研究标本来源(图1)
Specimen sources
(Fig. 1)
其他分布地区
Other distribution areas
文献
References
地理成分
Geographical elements
29 血红菇
R. sanguinea
针叶林/混交林
Coniferous/
mixed forest
大小兴安岭
GLHM
北美洲、欧洲
North America, Europe
Sarnari, 2005;
李国杰, 2014
北温带
North temperate
30 泥炭藓红菇
R. sphagnophila
混交林
Mixed forest
大小兴安岭、四川、欧洲
GLHM, Sichuan, Europe
北美洲
North America
Singer, 1986; 北温带
North temperate
31 亚臭红菇
R. subfoetens
阔叶林
Broadleaf forest
大小兴安岭
GLHM
北美洲、欧洲
North America, Europe
Singer, 1986;
Sarnari, 2005
北温带
North temperate
32 细皮囊体红菇
R. velenovskyi
阔叶林
Broadleaf forest
大小兴安岭、西藏、欧洲
GLHM, Xizang, Europe
北美洲
North America
Singer, 1986;
李国杰, 2014
温带-热带
Temperate-
Tropical
33 多色红菇
R. versicolor
混交林
Mixed forest
大小兴安岭、四川、欧洲
GLHM, Sichuan, Europe
- - 欧亚
Eurasian
34 菱红菇
R. vesca
阔叶林/混交林
Broadleaf/
mixed forest
大小兴安岭、欧洲
GLHM, Europe
北美洲
North America
Singer, 1986;
李国杰, 2014
温带-热带
Temperate-
Tropical
35 变绿红菇
R. virescens
阔叶林/混交林
Broadleaf/
mixed forest
大小兴安岭、欧洲
GLHM, Europe
北美洲
North America
Singer, 1986;
李国杰, 2014
温带-热带
Temperate-
Tropical
36 粘质红菇
R. viscida
针叶林
Coniferous forest
大小兴安岭、吉林
GLHM, Jilin
北美洲、欧洲
North America, Europe
Singer, 1986;
李国杰, 2014
北温带
North temperate
37 黄孢红菇
R. xerampelina
针叶林
Coniferous forest
大小兴安岭、欧洲
GLHM, Europe
北美洲
North America
Singer, 1986;
李国杰, 2014
北温带
North temperate
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