生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (4): 439-448.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018326

• 数据论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

秦岭落叶阔叶林25 ha森林动态监测样地物种组成与群落特征

谢峰淋1, 3, 周全2, 3, 史航2, 3, 舒枭2, 张克荣2, 李涛4, 冯水园4, 张全发2, 党海山2, *()   

  1. 1 西藏大学理学院, 拉萨 850000
    2 中国科学院武汉植物园水生植物与流域生态重点实验室, 武汉 430074
    3 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049)
    4 陕西省佛坪国家级自然保护区管理局, 陕西佛坪 723400
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-11 接受日期:2019-02-19 出版日期:2019-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 党海山 E-mail:dangkey@wbgcas.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31770517);国家自然科学基金(31470521)

Species composition and community characteristics of a 25 ha forest dynamics plot in deciduous broad-leaved forest, Qinling Mountains, north-central China

Xie Fenglin1, 3, Zhou Quan2, 3, Shi Hang2, 3, Shu Xiao2, Zhang Kerong2, Li Tao4, Feng Shuiyuan4, Zhang Quanfa2, Dang Haishan2, *()   

  1. 1 College of Science, Tibet University, Lhasa 850000
    2 Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    4 Shaanxi Foping National Nature Reserve Administration Bureau, Foping, Shaanxi 723400
  • Received:2018-12-11 Accepted:2019-02-19 Online:2019-04-20
  • Contact: Dang Haishan E-mail:dangkey@wbgcas.cn

秦岭落叶阔叶林是温带-亚热带过渡区保存较好的植被类型, 群落结构复杂。为了研究该过渡区植被的生物多样性维持机制, 按照CTFS (Center for tropical Forest Science)和中国森林生物多样性监测网络(CForBio)的建设标准, 于2015年在陕西省佛坪国家级自然保护区的落叶阔叶林建立了一块面积25 ha的动态监测样地。本文对样地内胸径(DBH) ≥ 1 cm的所有木本植物进行了调查和统计, 分析了其物种组成、区系特征、径级结构和空间分布格局。结果表明: 样地内DBH ≥ 1 cm的木本植物独立个体有47,739株, 隶属于36科66属119种。温带区系成分的科和属分别占总科数和总属数的41.18%和60.00%, 温带区系特征明显。稀有种有51种, 占总树种的42.86%。落叶树种有106种, 占总树种的89.07%, 在样地内占绝对优势。重要值≥ 1的物种共有20个, 分别占样地总个体数和总胸高断面积的70.35%和57.41%, 重要值最大的物种分别是乔木层的锐齿栎(Quercus aliena var. acutesrrata)、亚乔木层的水榆花楸(Sorbus alnifolia)和灌木层的刺叶栎(Q. spinosa)。样地内所有个体的平均胸径为8.61 cm, 整体径级分布呈倒”J”型, 小径级个体较多, 群落更新良好。除了太白杨(Populus purdomii), 样地内优势种表现出大尺度的聚集分布, 且它们的分布与生境紧密相关, 不同物种表现出不同的生境偏好。

关键词: 落叶阔叶林, 秦岭, 暖温带-亚热带过渡区, 物种组成, 群落结构

The deciduous broad-leaved forests in the warm temperate-subtropical transition zone of the Qinling Mountains are well preserved. The forests lie in the transition zone from warm temperate to subtropical forests and have a relatively complex community structure. Few studies have been conducted to investigate community structure based on a large-sized plot in this transitional region. This study analyzed species composition and community characteristics within a 25 ha plot, serving as the baseline information for monitoring long-term forest dynamics and diversity in the future. Based on the field protocol of the Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) and the Chinese Forest Biodiversity Monitoring Network (CForBio), a 25 ha deciduous broad-leaved forest plot was established in the temperate-subtropical transition zone. All free standing trees with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 1 cm were tagged, measured and identified to species. A total of 47,739 woody individuals with DBH ≥ 1 cm belonging to 119 species, 66 genera and 36 families were identified. The families and genera of temperate floristic elements accounted for 41.18% and 60.00%, respectively and were the dominant flora in this plot. Fifty-one rare species accounted for 42.86% of the total individuals. Deciduous trees species were dominant accounting for 89.07% of the total species. The 20 species with importance values ≥ 1 contributed 70.35% and 57.41% to the total number of individuals and the total basal area, respectively. The three most abundant species were Quercus aliena var. acutiserrata in the canopy layer, Sorbus alnifolia in the sub-tree layer, and Quercus spinosa in the shrub layer. The mean DBH of all individuals in the plot was 8.61 cm, and the overall structure of DBH size class of all individuals generally shows an inverse “J” type which indicated successful regeneration. All the dominant species exhibited large-scale aggregated spatial distribution closely related to habitat preferences except for Populus purdomii.

Key words: deciduous broad-leaved forest, Qinling Mountains, temperate-subtropical transition zone, species composition, community structure

表1

秦岭25 ha森林动态监测样地与其他6个不同纬度不同植被类型样地特征的比较"

样地
Plot
面积
Area (ha)
位置
Locality
平均海拔
Average
altitude
(m)
科的温带/
热带成分
Temperate/tropical
floristic elements of family
属的温带/
热带成分
Temperate/tropical
floristic elements of genus
物种数
No. of
species
个体数
No. of individuals
稀有种数量
No. of rare species (%)
落叶树种数量
No. of deciduous tree
species (%)
来源
Reference
秦岭
Qinling
25 107.84° E,
33.68° N
1,773.49 41.18%/38.24% 60%/24.62% 119 47,739 51 (42.86) 106 (89.07) 本研究
This study
长白山
Changbaishan
25 128.08° E,
42.38° N
801.5 - - 52 38,902 18 (34.6) - Hao et al,
2008
东灵山
Donglingshan
20 115.43° E,
39.96° N
1,395 44.44%/22.22% 93.75%/3.13% 58 52,136 11 (18.97) 58 (100) Liu et al,
2011
宝天曼
Baotianman
25 111.94° E,
33.49° N
1,301 - - > 98 63,600 - - -
古田山
Gutianshan
24 118.12° E,
29.25° N
580.6 26.53%/48.98% 42.31%/50.96% 159 140,700 59 (37.1) 68 (42.8) Zhu et al,
2008
鼎湖山
Dinghushan
20 121.32° E,
23.10° N
230-247 - 6.72%/89.92% 210 71,617 110 (52.38) - Ye et al,
2008
哀牢山
Ailaoshan
20 101.03° E,
24.53° N
2,550 - 38.10%/46.00% 104 44,168 49 (47.1) 23 (22.8) Wen et al,
2018

图1

秦岭25 ha森林动态监测样地木本植物种-面积曲线"

图2

秦岭25 ha森林动态监测样地木本植物总体径级分布"

图3

秦岭25 ha森林动态监测样地主要木本植物径级分布"

图4

秦岭25 ha森林动态监测样地8个优势种在完全随机模型下的空间分布"

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