生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (6): 590-600.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018025

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

赛罕乌拉自然保护区蝶类多样性及其影响因素

洪雪萌, 戈昕宇, 李俊兰*()   

  1. 内蒙古大学生命科学学院, 呼和浩特 010021
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-24 接受日期:2018-04-10 出版日期:2018-06-20 发布日期:2018-09-11
  • 通讯作者: 李俊兰
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31460111)和环境保护部生物多样性保护专项资助项目

Butterfly diversity and its influencing factors in Saihanwula Nature Reserve

Xuemeng Hong, Xinyu Ge, Junlan Li*()   

  1. College of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021
  • Received:2018-01-24 Accepted:2018-04-10 Online:2018-06-20 Published:2018-09-11
  • Contact: Li Junlan
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

摘要:

为了解赛罕乌拉自然保护区蝶类多样性及其影响因素, 我们于2017年5-9月分别对保护区的典型草原、湿地、山地沟谷草甸、退化草原、农田、山地旱生灌丛、山地中生灌丛等7种生境中的蝴蝶进行观测调查。共记录和采集蝴蝶2,290只, 隶属5科42属63种。蛱蝶科的种类数(34种)和个体数(991只)最多。柑橘凤蝶(Papilio xuthus)、云粉蝶(Pontia daplidice)、绢粉蝶(Aporia crataegi)、荨麻蛱蝶(Aglais urticae)、银斑豹蛱蝶(Speyeria aglaja)等5种为保护区的优势种。保护区蝶类群落的种-多度曲线呈正态分布模式, 表明保护区生态环境良好, 生境相互重叠, 蝶类活动范围在不同生境中可以延伸。不同生境中蝶类群落种类及数量存在一定差异, 其中山地中生灌丛蝶类群落的多样性指数最高, 优势度指数最低; 退化草原的多样性指数和物种丰富度指数均为最低, 优势度指数最高; 山地沟谷草甸的科、属、种、个体数最多; 退化草原的科、属、种、个体数都是最少。区系组成分析表明广布种占63.49%, 古北种占36.51%。保护区不同生境中蝶类群落多样性特征指数在各月份间有明显差异, 蝴蝶种类及个体数与温度之间呈显著正相关, 与降雨量无显著相关性。综上, 我们认为适当的干扰有利于蝶类多样性发展, 而强烈的人为干扰会严重破坏草场环境, 影响蝶类生存和繁衍, 降低蝶类多样性。

关键词: 蝴蝶, 多样性, 影响因素, 干扰, 赛罕乌拉自然保护区

Abstract:

To explore the factors explaining butterfly diversity in a landscape mosaic of different habitats, we conducted a series of field surveys in the Saihawla National Nature Reserve. This reserve comprised of seven habitats: typical grassland, wetland, mountain valley meadow, degraded grassland, farmland, mountain xerophytic shrub and mountainous shrub. From May to September 2017, we recorded a total of 2,290 butterfly individuals belonging to 63 species, 42 genera, and 5 families. Nymphalidae, with the most species (34) and the most individuals (991), was the dominant family in the reserve. Five species dominated the community: Papilio Xuthus, Pontia daplidice, Aporia crataegi, Aglais urticae, Speyeria aglaja. The species-abundance analysis showed a normal distribution model, suggesting a relatively stable community with the range of butterfly activity extending to different habitats due to the continuity of vegetation types. However, we also found that butterfly distribution in Saihanwula was closely related to the distribution and composition of vegetation among habitats. The Mountainous shrub had the highest biodiversity index and the lowest dominance index, whereas degraded grassland had the lowest biodiversity index and species richness, but the highest dominance index. The Mountain valley meadow had the most number of families, genera, species, and individuals, the degraded grassland had the lowest number of families, genera, species, and individuals. Faunal distribution analysis show that widely distributed species occupied 63.49% and Palaearctic species occupied 36.51%. Furthermore, butterfly diversity in the different habitats of the reserve varied significantly between months. Finally, we found that numbers of butterfly individuals and species increased with higher temperatures, while rainfall had no significant correlation. In conclusion, We believe that appropriate interference is conducive to the development of butterfly diversity, strong human disturbance seriously destroyed grassland environment, affected butterfly survival and reproduction, and reduced butterfly diversity.

Key words: butterfly, diversity, influencing factors, interference, Saihanwula Nature Reserve