生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (10): 1131-1136.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017193

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    下一篇

利用红外相机调查四川卧龙国家级自然保护区鸟兽多样性

施小刚1, 胡强1, 李佳琦4, 唐卓1, 杨建1, 李文静1, 申小莉3, 李晟2,*()   

  1. 1 卧龙国家级自然保护区, 四川汶川 623004
    2 北京大学生命科学学院, 北京 100871
    3 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    4 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
  • 收稿日期:2017-06-29 接受日期:2017-10-09 出版日期:2017-10-20 发布日期:2018-05-05
  • 通讯作者: 李晟
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院西南生物多样性评估与产业开发策略(Y5213G1001)和环境保护部多样性保护专项(MM-2016-026)

Camera-trapping surveys of the mammal and bird diversity in Wolong National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province

Xiaogang Shi1, Qiang Hu1, Jiaqi Li4, Zhuo Tang1, Jian Yang1, Wenjing Li1, Xiaoli Shen3, Sheng Li2,*()   

  1. 1 Wolong National Nature Reserve, Wenchuan, Sichuan 623004
    2 School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    3 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    4 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2017-06-29 Accepted:2017-10-09 Online:2017-10-20 Published:2018-05-05
  • Contact: Li Sheng

摘要:

卧龙国家级自然保护区位于邛崃山脉东南坡, 地处邛崃山自然保护区群的核心地带。2014-2016年, 我们在卧龙保护区内使用红外相机技术开展大中型兽类与鸟类的本底调查。经过10,961个相机工作日的调查, 完成有效调查位点83个, 覆盖58个公里网格。共鉴定出分属6目15科的32种野生兽类和4种家畜, 探测数总计2,095次, 其中国家一、二级重点保护野生动物分别有5、11种, 被IUCN红色名录评估为濒危(EN)、易危(VU)、近危(NT)的动物分别有4、6、4种。野生兽类中, 食肉目物种数最多, 共6科16种, 其次为偶蹄目(4科8种)和啮齿目(2科5种)。偶蹄目是有效拍摄数最多的类群(占总探测数的63.33%), 其次为食肉目(20.01%)和啮齿目(5.73%)。食肉目中相对多度最高的物种是猪獾(Arctonyx collaris, RAI = 12.23), 偶蹄目中最高的物种是毛冠鹿(Elaphodus cephalophus, RAI = 32.21)。记录到雪豹(Panthera uncia)、狼(Canis lupus)、豺(Cuon alpinus) 3种大中型顶级食肉兽类。鸟类探测数655 次, 鉴定出分属5目18科的59种鸟类, 其中国家一、二级重点保护野生动物分别有3、9种, 保护区新记录鸟类4种。鸡形目是探测数最高的类群, 占全部鸟类探测数的56.76%。本次调查了解了区内兽类和鸟类的物种组成、空间分布和相对多度, 提供了区内大中型兽类和鸟类群落的初步本底信息, 为后续的保护管理规划和长期监测提供了数据支持和指导。

关键词: 卧龙国家级自然保护区, 邛崃山, 生物多样性编目, 红外相机, 野生动物监测

Abstract:

Wolong National Nature Reserve is the core nature reserve in the reserve network found in the Qionglai Mountains. Between 2014 and 2016, we conducted a baseline survey in Wolong on large fauna using camera-trapping. After an extensive survey effort comprised of 10,961 camera-days from 83 camera stations in 58 survey blocks (1 km × 1 km each), we recorded 32 wild and 4 domestic mammal species (belonging to 6 orders and 15 families) with 2,095 detections. Five and eleven mammals were listed as Class I and Class II Nationally Protected Wildlife, respectively, and 4, 6, and 4 species were listed as EN, VU, and NT species, respectively, according to the IUCN Red List. Among the recorded wild mammals, Carnivora was the order with the greatest species richness (16 from 6 families), followed by Artiodactyla (8 from 4 families) and Rodentia (5 from 2 families), whereas Artiodactyla was the order with greatest detection (accounting for 63.33% of all mammal detections), followed by Carnivora (20.01%) and Rodentia (5.73%). The most detected species in Carnivora was the hog badger (Arctonyx collaris, RAI = 12.23), and tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus, RAI = 32.21) in Artiodactyla. Three large apex carnivores were detected in Wolong, including snow leopard (Panthera uncia), wolf (Canis lupus) and dhole (Cuon alpinus). We recorded 59 bird species (belonging to 5 orders and 18 families) with a total detection of 655, including 4 newly recorded species in the reserve. Pheasants (Galliformes) had the highest detection of bird groups and accounted for 56.76% of all bird detections. Our results provide basic information on the community structure, spatial distribution and relative abundance of terrestrial wild mammals and birds in Wolong, which provide support and guidelines for reserve management and long-term monitoring of Wolong.

Key words: Wolong National Nature Reserve, Qionglai Mountains, biodiversity inventory, camera-trapping, wildlife monitoring