生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (8): 840-846.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017130

• 研究报告: 动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

广东省珠海市近海诸岛水獭现状与保护建议

李飞1, 郑玺1, 张华荣2, 杨剑焕1, 陈辈乐1, *()   

  1. 1 (嘉道理农场暨植物园中国保育部, 香港 999077)
    2 (嘉道理农场暨植物园植物保育部, 香港 999077)
  • 收稿日期:2017-05-02 接受日期:2017-06-15 出版日期:2017-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 陈辈乐 E-mail:boscokf@kfbg.org
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者 Co-first authors

The current status and conservation of otters on the coastal islands of Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, China

Fei Li1, Xi Zheng1, Huarong Zhang2, Jianhuan Yang1, Bosco Pui Lok Chan1, *()   

  1. 1 Kadoorie Conservation China, Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden, Hong Kong 999077
    2 Flora Conservation Department, Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden, Hong Kong 999077
  • Received:2017-05-02 Accepted:2017-06-15 Online:2017-08-20
  • Contact: Pui Lok Chan Bosco E-mail:boscokf@kfbg.org

水獭作为我国珍稀濒危的兽类之一, 长期以来未得到研究者与保护生物学者的足够重视。2016年9月至2017年3月, 我们通过半结构性访谈、样线、红外相机以及分子生物学等手段, 对珠海近海10座岛屿的水獭现状进行了快速调查, 以期为今后该地区的水獭保护工作提供本底数据和科学支持。调查结果显示, 面积较大的近海岛屿曾经都有水獭分布, 但种群数量已严重下降, 在一些岛屿上可能已经消失。我们在横琴岛仍发现欧亚水獭(Lutra lutra)残存的种群, 为华南地区的水獭保护带来了希望; 但横琴岛的经济开发正对其栖息地产生威胁。笔者建议尽快将横琴岛的水獭活动区域划为保护地, 避免其受到开发建设的影响, 同时尽快开展我国其他地区的水獭现状调查, 以制定我国水獭的保护策略。

关键词: 欧亚水獭, 物种保护, 珠江口, 横琴岛, 种群调查

Otters are rare and threatened in China, but both research and conservation efforts on this specialized group of mammals are largely overlooked. To provide baseline information on the current conservation status of otters in coastal Guangdong Province, we conducted rapid otter surveys using semi-structured interviews, transects, camera-trapping surveys, and a molecular study of the coastal islands of Zhuhai City between September 2016 and March 2017. Data collected suggested a dramatic decline of otter populations and the local extirpation of otters was reported on several islands. The discovery of a remnant population of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) on Hengqin Island provides hopes for the recovery of this species in South China. Nonetheless, the future of Hengqin’s otter is at stake due to the rapid urbanization of suitable habitats for economic development. To ensure its continual survival, critical habitats on Hengqin Island should be strictly protected as soon as possible. Furthermore, systematic, otter-specific surveys should be conducted in other coastal areas of China, to best devise a national otter conservation plan.

Key words: Eurasian otter, species conservation, Pearl River Estuary, Hengqin Island, population survey

图1

珠海市近海诸岛水獭调查地点位置图"

表1

珠海市近海诸岛水獭调查有效被访者、样线数量等基础信息"

面积
Area (km2)
最高海拔
Highest elevation (m)
有效被访者数量
No. of effective respondents
样线 Transect line
数量 No. 总长度 Total length (m)
三灶岛 Sanzao Is. 78.00 307 7 8 4,263
横琴岛 Hengqin Is. 47.00 458 16 15 26,217
高栏岛 Gaolan Is. 34.20 428 8 3 2,180
淇澳岛 Qi’ao Is. 15.92 185 6 5 5,980
荷包岛 Hebao Is. 12.00 386 4 3 4,335
大杧岛 Damang Is. 5.20 268 2 1 532
三角山岛 Sanjiaoshan Is. 0.82 142 0 0 0
横洲 Hengzhou Is. 0.70 113 0 3 2,293
獭洲 Tazhou Is. 0.12 84 0 1 395
交杯岛 Jiaobei Is. 0.08 47 0 2 199
总计 Total 43 41 46,394

图2

珠海市近海诸岛水獭种群变化状况的访问结果"

图3

基于Cyt b基因部分序列构建的样品与11种水獭的NJ树(Otter H1和Otter H2为珠海样本)"

图4

珠海市横琴岛欧亚水獭的日活动规律"

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