生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (3): 265-274.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016337

• • 上一篇    下一篇

北热带喀斯特季节性雨林凋落物组分构成及时空动态

郭屹立1, 2, 李冬兴1, 2, 王斌1, 2, 何运林1, 2, 向悟生1, 2, 蒋裕良1, 2, 李先琨1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 .广西壮族自治区中国科学院广西植物研究所广西喀斯特植物保育与恢复生态学重点实验室, 广西桂林 541006
    2 .广西友谊关森林生态系统国家定位观测研究站, 广西凭祥 532699
  • 收稿日期:2016-11-28 接受日期:2017-01-23 出版日期:2017-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 李先琨 E-mail:xiankunli@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31500342, 31660130)、广西重点研发计划项目(桂科AB16380256)、广西自然科学基金(2015GXNSFBA139050)和广西喀斯特植物保育与恢复生态学重点实验室开放基金(GKB15-A-22)

Composition and spatio-temporal dynamics of litter fall in a northern tropical karst seasonal rainforest in Nonggang, Guangxi, southern China

Yili Guo1, 2, Dongxing Li1, 2, Bin Wang1, 2, Yunlin He1, 2, Wusheng Xiang1, 2, Yuliang Jiang1, 2, Xiankun Li1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 Guangxi Key Laboratory of Plant Conservation and Restoration Ecology in Karst Terrain, Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin, Guangxi 541006
    2 Guangxi Youyiguan Forest Ecosystem National Research Station, Pingxiang, Guangxi 532699
  • Received:2016-11-28 Accepted:2017-01-23 Online:2017-03-20
  • Contact: Li Xiankun E-mail:xiankunli@163.com

森林凋落物是森林生态系统的重要组成部分, 在森林生态系统的物质循环和养分平衡中起重要作用。自2012年5月开始, 我们在弄岗北热带喀斯特季节性雨林15 ha森林动态监测样地中布设了90个凋落物收集器进行凋落物收集。本文选取2013-2014年期间相关数据, 研究了凋落物的组分特征、物种组成、时间动态和空间分布特征等。结果表明, 2013年和2014年凋落物总量分别为4,858.0 kg/ha和4,928.8 kg/ha; 凋落物组分以凋落叶为主且高达85%以上, 其他组分所占比例较小。凋落物总量和凋落叶均有两个高峰期, 分别发生在每年的春季(3-4月)和秋冬季(8-11月), 凋落果的高峰期在8月左右; 其他组分由于凋落量较少, 年际动态并不明显。不同生态因子对凋落物总量分布格局的影响差异显著, 且存在年际变化, 但总体表现出凋落物总量受凋落物收集器所在样方的坡向和样方内所有DBH ≥ 1 cm个体的平均胸径影响最为显著。喀斯特季节性雨林凋落物的组分构成和时空动态特征反映了不同生物和非生物因素影响下的物质循环规律, 为深入揭示喀斯特独特地质、地貌背景下物质循环和能量流动的特殊性提供了基础。

关键词: 喀斯特季节性雨林, 凋落物, 组分构成, 生态因子, 弄岗15 ha森林动态监测样地

Litter fall is a significant component of forest ecosystems and has important ecological functions in material cycling and nutrient balance of forest ecosystems. In this study, we studied litter fall production, composition, spatial and temporal dynamics in a 15-ha northern tropical karst seasonal rainforest dynamics plot in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi. We set up 90 litter fall traps, and collected litter fall weekly since May 2012. All litter fall in each trap was dried, classified and weighed. We used litter fall data from January 2013 to December 2014. The total annual litter production in 2013 and 2014 was 4,858.0 kg/ha and 4,928.8 kg/ha, respectively. Litter fall of leaves accounted for 85% while other components made up a small amount. Fruit litter fall was significantly higher in 2013. There were two litter fall peaks in each year, one in spring (March and April) and the other occurring in autumn to early winter (between August and November). The peak of fruit litter fall peak occurred in August. There were no significant inter-annual fluctuations in other litter fall components. The prevailing ecological factors of litter fall production were significantly different between 2013 and 2014. Litter fall production was significantly influenced by aspect and mean DBH (diameter at breast height). Composition and spatio-temporal dynamics of litter fall reflected material cycles affected by multiple biotic and abiotic factors. Our results provide basic information to reveal the unique characteristics of material circulation and energy flows in the geological background and geomorphology of karst.

Key words: karst seasonal rainforest, litter fall, components, ecological factors, Nonggang 15 ha forest dynamics plot

图1

广西龙州县2013-2014年降水量、风速和温度的月变化"

图2

弄岗15 ha森林动态监测样地等高线图及90个凋落物收集器的编号和位置图"

表1

2013年和2014年凋落物组分构成比较"

组分
Components
凋落量Litter fall (kg/ha) (%)
2013 2014
花 Flower 64.6 (1.33) 34.8 (0.71)
果 Fruit 417.8 (8.60) 64.6 (1.31)
叶 Leaf 4,334.8 (89.23) 4,656.6 (94.48)
枝 Twig 17.8 (0.37) 63.4 (1.28)
杂物 Debris 23.0 (0.47) 109.4 (2.22)
合计 Total 4,858.0 (100.00) 4,928.8 (100.00)

表2

2013年和2014年凋落物中凋落叶优势种组成特征"

物种 Species 凋落量 Litter fall (kg/ha) (%)
2013 2014
闭花木 Cleistanthus sumatranus 738.7 (15.21) 694.3 (14.09)
广西牡荆 Vitex kwangsiensis 471.6 (9.71) 542.5 (11.01)
苹婆 Sterculia monosperma 450.3 (9.27) 470.9 (9.55)
海南椴 Diplodiscus trichosperma 343.4 (7.07) 425.1 (8.62)
蚬木 Excentrodendron tonkinense 239.0 (4.92) 247.1 (5.01)
广西棋子豆
Archidendron guangxiensis
215.8 (4.44) 127.9 (2.60)
中国无忧花 Saraca dives 207.9 (4.28) 161.3 (3.27)
劲直刺桐 Erythrina stricta 180.0 (3.70) 106.6 (2.16)
鱼骨木 Canthium dicoccum 172.2 (3.54) 119.8 (2.43)
米扬噎 Streblus tonkinensis 112.4 (2.31) 113.5 (2.30)
羽叶白头树 Garuga pinnata 99.1 (2.04) 54.5 (1.11)
广西澄广花 Orophea anceps 92.8 (1.91) 94.8 (1.92)
金丝李 Garcinia paucinervis 80.4 (1.65) 69.1 (1.40)
南烛厚壳桂
Cryptocarya lyoniifolia
59.0 (1.21) 57.9 (1.17)
五瓣子楝树
Decaspermum parviflorum
55.6 (1.14) -
黄梨木 Boniodendron minus - 70.4 (1.43)
合计 Total 3,518.2 (72.40) 3,355.7 (68.07)

图3

2013年和2014年凋落物总量的时间动态"

表3

2013年和2014年凋落物各组分量的时间动态"

月份
Month
果 Fruits 叶 Leaves 花 Flowers 枝 Twigs
2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014
1 月 January 0.7 0.4 193.9 494.8 0 0 0.1 0
2月 February 4.5 2.1 165.7 444.8 0 0.1 21 12.4
3月 March 7.1 3.8 565.6 632.8 3.8 1.5 1 1.6
4月 April 1.5 4.6 565 637.5 16 16.3 20 17.5
5月 May 11.6 0.5 338.3 344.5 1.9 14.1 5 8.5
6月 June 47.9 1.3 487.7 281.6 0.4 2.4 3 4.3
7月 July 71.4 7.5 106.5 239.5 0.1 0 9 11.1
8月 August 151 12.5 288.3 289.4 0 0 3 5.3
9月 September 84.4 9.6 435.1 341.7 0 0 0.5 0
10月 October 32.1 12.7 469.9 362.9 0 0 0 0
11月 November 4.5 7.4 402 224.2 0 0 0.9 2.6
12月 December 1.1 2.1 357.5 362.8 0.2 0.4 0 0

表4

2013年和2014年凋落物总量与生态因子的广义线性回归模型检验"

偏回归系数 Partial
regression coefficient ($\hat{\beta}_i$)
标准差 SD P 标准化偏回归系数 Standardized coefficient ($\hat{\beta}_i^*$)
2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014
截距 Intercept 83.643 -78.420 142.151 280.363 0.558 0.780
海拔 Elevation -0.142 0.786 0.249 0.491 0.570 0.114 -0.093 0.292
坡度 Slope 0.615 0.640 0.989 1.951 0.536 0.744 0.111 0.066
凹凸度 Convexity 11.08 -3.739 12.525 24.702 0.379 0.880 0.124 -0.008
坡向正弦值 Sine of aspect -24.012 -10.606 9.612 18.958 0.015 0.577 -0.262 -0.066
坡向余弦值 Cosine of aspect 18.492 40.214 10.708 21.120 0.088 0.061 0.174 0.215
地形湿润度指数Topographic wetness index -4.275 17.891 11.019 21.732 0.699 0.413 -0.080 0.190
干旱度指数 Altitude above channel -3.683 1.946 5.165 10.187 0.478 0.849 -0.099 0.030
胸高断面积 Basal area 219.000 -99.223 179.596 354.213 0.026 0.780 0.363 -0.093
最大胸径 Maximum DBH 0.405 1.007 1.383 2.726 0.770 0.713 0.066 0.094
平均胸径 Mean DBH 31.149 25.945 12.939 15.520 0.018 0.816 0.497 0.254
个体数 Individuals 1.758 0.051 0.652 1.287 0.009 0.969 0.572 0.009

表5

2013年和2014年凋落物总量与生态因子的最佳广义线性回归模型检验(AIC值最小)"

偏回归系数 Partial regression coefficient ($\hat{\beta}_i$) 标准差 SD P 标准化偏回归系数
Standardized coefficient ($\hat{\beta}_i^*$)
2013 截距 Intercept 27.516 49.672 0.081
坡度 Slope 0.909 0.585 0.024 0.164
坡向余弦值 Cosine of aspect 15.011 10.036 0.039 0.141
坡向正弦值Sine of aspect -27.444 8.764 0.002 -0.300
胸高断面积 Basal area -148.935 84.552 0.082 -0.045
平均胸径 Mean DBH 27.965 9.822 0.006 0.446
个体数 Individuals 1.511 0.437 0.001 0.491
2014 截距 Intercept 92.670 69.406 0.045
坡向余弦值 Cosine of aspect 43.303 18.941 0.025 0.432
平均胸径 Mean DBH 26.615 8.272 0.026 0.458
平均值
Average
截距 Intercept 235.340 35.658 0.000
坡向余弦值 Cosine of aspect 32.684 12.614 0.011 0.268
平均胸径 Mean DBH 1.865 7.446 0.053 0.215
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