生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (1): 53-61.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016259

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青藏高原东北部边缘高原鳅属鱼类的 多样性与分布格局

冯晨光1, 2, 3, 童超1, 2, 3, 张仁意1, 2, 李国刚1, 2, 王贺崐元1, 2, 3, 汤永涛1, 2, 3, 张存芳1, 2, *(), 赵凯1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 中国科学院西北高原生物研究所高原生物适应与进化重点实验室, 西宁 810008
    2 中国科学院西北高原生物研究所高原鱼类进化与功能基因组学实验室, 西宁 810008
    3 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2016-09-12 接受日期:2016-12-30 出版日期:2017-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 张存芳,赵凯 E-mail:cfzhang@nwipb.cas.cn;zhaokai@nwipb.cas.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31572258)、中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KSCX2-YW-N-101和KSCX2-EW-N-004)和中国科学院科技服务网络计划(KFJ-SW-STS-145)

Biodiversity and distribution patterns of Triplophysa species in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

Chenguang Feng1, 2, 3, Chao Tong1, 2, 3, Renyi Zhang1, 2, Guogang Li1, 2, Kunyuan Wanghe1, 2, 3, Yongtao Tang1, 2, 3, Cunfang Zhang1, 2, *(), Kai Zhao1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
    2 Laboratory of Plateau Fish Evolutionary and Functional Genomics, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2016-09-12 Accepted:2016-12-30 Online:2017-01-20
  • Contact: Zhang Cunfang,Zhao Kai E-mail:cfzhang@nwipb.cas.cn;zhaokai@nwipb.cas.cn

为了了解青藏高原东北部边缘地区高原鳅属(Triplophysa)鱼类的多样性和分布格局, 本文基于2012-2015年的野外调查数据, 对该地区高原鳅属鱼类的分布情况进行了调查。结果发现: 与历史记录相比, 部分物种的分布区已经萎缩或破碎化。物种在整个区域的分布很不均匀, 其中洮河、大通河和黑河的中上游是高原鳅分布较集中的地区; 同时这3条河也有着较高的多样性水平。海拔梯度上, 物种丰富度呈现随海拔上升先增后减的单峰分布模式, 在2,200-2,400 m海拔区间最高; 且峰值点出现在两个物种丰富的群落的过渡区, 很好地印证了Lomolino对物种密度海拔分布的预测。多样性指数的海拔回归分析获得与物种丰富度的海拔分布相一致的结果。结合已有报道, 我们认为这种中间海拔最大的单峰分布模式可能是青藏高原及其周边地区物种多样性分布的普遍规律。因而, 中海拔地区需要优先保护。

关键词: 青藏高原, 高原鳅, 多样性, 分布格局, 海拔梯度, 保护

The northeastern region of the Tibetan Plateau is a region with high genetic diversity for endemic species. To comprehensively document the patterns of diversity and the distribution of Triplophysa species in this area, we probed the allocation of Triplophysa species using field surveys from 2012 to 2015. We found that areal shrinkage and fragmentation had occurred in some species. Species richness in this area was uneven. But the middle to upper reaches of the Heihe River, Datong River and Taohe River were uncommon areas with high species-richness and high biodiversity. Along altitudinal gradients, species richness presented a unimodal pattern and peaked at mid-elevations (2,200-2,400 m), which was the transition area between two community zones with high species richness. The unimodal pattern fit Lomolino’s prediction regarding species density and altitude. Biodiversity indices displayed uniform patterns with species richness and elevation. Consistent with most studies, the unimodal shape may be the universal pattern of biodiversity distribution along elevational gradients in the Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent highlands. The intermediate elevational regions should be conservation priorities.

Key words: Tibetan Plateau, Triplophysa, biodiversity, distribution pattern, elevational gradient, conservation

图1

调查区域水系图示。右图灰色线中, 1: 大马营河; 2: 甘子河; 3: 洮河; 4: 大夏河; 5: 庄浪河; 6: 大通河; 7: 湟水河; 8: 贵德; 9: 玛曲; 10: 白龙江; 11: 嘉陵江上游。"

表1

青藏高原东北部边缘地区高原鳅属鱼类的多样性(平均值 ± 标准差)"

水系
Basin
水系单元
Basin unit
物种丰富度
Species richness
Shannon-Wiener指数
Shannon-Wiener index
Pielou指数
Pielou index
Simpson指数
Simpson index
河西
Hexi rivers
疏勒河干流 Shule River 4 0.690 ± 0.114 0.727 ± 0.074 0.553 ± 0.047
疏勒河附属水体 Tributaries of Shule River 2 0.560 ± 0.217 0.810 ± 0.312 0.556 ± 0.250
黑河干流 Heihe River 6 1.136 ± 0.213 0.842 ± 0.078 0.350 ± 0.064
黑河附属水体—大马营河 Damaying-tributary of Heihe River 4 1.100 0.790 0.346
黑河附属水体—其他 Other tributaries of Heihe River 2 0.320 ± 0.157 0.463 ± 0.229 0.806 ± 0.117
石羊河干流 Shiyang River 4 1.035 ± 0.093 0.893 ± 0.121 0.364 ± 0.035
石羊河附属水体 Tributaries of Shiyang River 2 0.640 ± 0.044 0.923 ± 0.064 0.545 ± 0.040
小计 Subtotal 7
青海湖
Lake Qinghai
甘子河 Ganzi River 2 0.620 ± 0.028 0.890 ± 0.042 0.539 ± 0.054
入湖河流 Tributaries of Qinghai Lake 2 0.673 ± 0.029 0.973 ± 0.046 0.418 ± 0.075
小计 Subtotal 4
黄河上游
Upper reaches
of Yellow River
洮河 Taohe River 8 1.198 ± 0.246 0.848 ± 0.122 0.337 ± 0.072
大夏河 Daxia River 4 0.573 ± 0.107 0.633 ± 0.261 0.589 ± 0.229
庄浪河 Zhuanglang River 4 0.570 0.410 0.723
大通河 Datong River 6 1.390 ± 0.014 0.820 ± 0.057 0.293 ± 0.019
湟水河 Huangshui River 7 1.060 ± 0.159 0.753 ± 0.130 0.368 ± 0.103
贵德至玛曲段 Guide-Maqu section 4 0.777 ± 0.168 0.950 ± 0.053 0.417 ± 0.086
玛曲段 Maqu section 6 0.645 ± 0.134 0.515 ± 0.021 0.674 ± 0.049
玛曲至玛多段 Maqu-Maduo section 3 0.530 ± 0.382 0.545 ± 0.247 0.667 ± 0.269
小计 Subtotal 12
渭河 Weihe River 渭河上游 Upper reaches of Weihe River 4 1.010 ± 0.113 0.790 ± 0.098 0.419 ± 0.045
嘉陵江
Jialing River
白龙江 Bailong River 4 0.845 ± 0.247 0.950 ± 0.028 0.446 ± 0.104
嘉陵江上游 Upper reaches of Jialing River 3 0.990 0.900 0.392
小计 Subtotal 5

图2

研究区域各水系单元基于高原鳅属物种组成的UPGMA聚类分析。YH1是黄河上游水系贵德以下段, YH2是黄河上游水系贵德以上段。"

图3

青藏高原东北部边缘地区高原鳅属鱼类物种丰富度分布格局, 图中河流编号与图1中一致。"

图4

青藏高原东北部边缘地区高原鳅属鱼类物种丰富度的海拔分布格局"

图5

生物多样性指数与海拔的关系"

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