生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (7): 811-819.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016039

所属专题: 全球气候变化下的海洋生物多样性专辑

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长江口邻近海域丰水季大型底栖动物群落特征

徐勇1, 2, 3, 李新正1, 3, , A;*(), 王洪法1, 3, 张宝琳1, 3, 帅莲梅1   

  1. 1 .中国科学院海洋研究所, 山东青岛 266071
    2 .中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3 .青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋生物学与生物技术功能实验室, 山东青岛 266000
  • 收稿日期:2016-02-04 接受日期:2016-04-20 出版日期:2016-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 李新正 E-mail:lixzh@qdio.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    中科院先导科技专项(A) “黑潮及其变异对中国近海生态系统的影响” (XDA11020303)和海洋公益性行业科研专项(201505004-1)

Characteristics of a macrozoobenthic community in the sea adjacent to the Yangtze River estuary during the wet season

Yong Xu1, 2, 3, Xinzheng Li1, 3, *(), Hongfa Wang1, 3, Baolin Zhang1, 3, Lianmei Shuai1   

  1. 1 Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong 266000
  • Received:2016-02-04 Accepted:2016-04-20 Online:2016-07-20
  • Contact: Li Xinzheng E-mail:lixzh@qdio.ac.cn

为了研究长江口丰水季邻近海域大型底栖动物群落特征, 我们根据2012年6、8和10月长江口邻近海域大型底栖动物的调查资料, 应用双因素方差分析(Two-Way ANOVA)、聚类分析(Cluster)、非参数多维标度排序(Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling, NMDS)以及丰度生物量比较曲线(Abundance-Biomass Comparison Curves, ABC Curves)对数据资料进行分析。本研究共记录大型底栖动物181种, 其中多毛类动物82种, 甲壳动物46种, 软体动物31种, 棘皮动物11种, 其他类群11种。大型底栖动物丰度、生物量、种类丰富度和多样性指数月份间差异和空间差异均不显著。均匀度指数月份间差异不显著, 而空间上远海显著高于近海。6、8和10月大型底栖动物在20%的相似性水平上划分为3-4个群聚, 不同站位相似性水平较低。ABC曲线表明远海大型底栖动物群落受扰动的程度小于近海。受人类活动的持续影响, 长江口邻近海域大型底栖动物种类变化剧烈, 空间分布不均匀。

关键词: 大型底栖生物, 多样性, 群聚结构, 优势种, 长江口

To explore the characteristics of a macrozoobenthic community in the sea adjacent to the Yangtze River estuary during the wet season, macrozoobenthic samples were collected during June, August, and October, 2012, and data were analyzed using statistical methods including Two-Way ANOVA, Cluster analysis, Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS), and Abundance-Biomass Comparison Curves (ABC Curves). A total of 181 macrozoobenthic species were recorded, with 82 species of Polychaeta, 46 Crustacea, 31 Mollusca, 11 Echinodermata and 11 species belonging to other groups. The abundance, biomass, Margalef’s richness index (d), Shannon-Wiener index (H'), and Pielou index (J') did not show any significant temporal or spatial differences except that J' in the offshore area was significantly higher than that found in the inshore area. Three to four macrozoobenthic assemblages were identified using the 20% similarity level and a low similarity level among stations was also observed. ABC curves revealed that the macrozoobenthic community in the offshore area was less disturbed than that in the inshore area. As a result of the continuous impact of anthropogenic activities, the macrozoobenthic community was severely disturbed and unevenly distributed in the sea adjacent to the Yangtze River estuary.

Key words: macrobenthos, diversity, assemblage, dominant species, Yangtze River estuary

图1

长江口邻近海域大型底栖动物采样站位"

图2

长江口邻近海域2012年6-10月大型底栖动物种类组成"

表1

长江口邻近海域2012年6-10月大型底栖动物优势度(Y)"

物种
Species
6月
June
8月
August
10月
October
寡鳃齿吻沙蚕 Nephtys oligobranchia 0.067 0.009 0.007
奇异稚齿虫 Paraprionospio pinnata 0.042 0.019 0.056
四齿欧努菲虫 Onuphis tetradentata 0.035 0.030 0.022
索沙蚕一种 Lumbrineris sp. 0.017 - -
拟节虫一种 Praxillella sp. 0.013 - 0.007
多丝独毛虫 Tharyx multifilis 0.011 - 0.007
背蚓虫 Notomastus latericeus 0.009 0.012 0.022
锥唇吻沙蚕 Glycera onomichiensis 0.008 0.010 -
独指虫一种 Aricidea sp. 0.007 - -
稚齿虫 Prionospio pygmaeus 0.007 - -
日本倍棘蛇尾 Amphioplus japonicus - 0.011 -
厚鳃虫 Dasybranchus caducus - 0.010 -
豆形短眼蟹 Xenophthalmus pinnotheroides - 0.009 -
长叶索沙蚕 Lumbrineris longifolia - 0.008 0.036
拟特须虫 Paralacydonia paradoxa - 0.007 -
梨体星虫一种 Apionsoma sp. - - 0.114
长吻沙蚕 Glycera chirori - - 0.015
岩虫 Marphysa sanguinea - - 0.007

图3

长江口邻近海域2012年6-10月大型底栖动物的丰度(a)和生物量(b)。●表示6月, Å表示8月, ○表示10月。"

表2

长江口邻近海域2012年6-10月大型底栖动物主要类群的丰度(ind./m2)和生物量(g/m2)"

类群 Group 6月 June 8月 August 10月 October 平均 Average
丰度
Abundance
生物量
Biomass
丰度
Abundance
生物量
Biomass
丰度
Abundance
生物量
Biomass
丰度
Abundance
生物量
Biomass
多毛类动物 Polychaeta 100.0 3.9 88.8 4.7 115.7 2.8 101.6 3.8
甲壳动物 Crustacea 13.8 0.9 22.5 5.6 24.6 0.9 20.3 2.5
软体动物 Mollusca 18.1 0.5 7.9 1.1 11.1 0.3 12.4 0.6
棘皮动物 Echinodermata 3.8 0.2 5.8 0.4 9.3 1.6 6.3 0.7
其他类群 Others 4.6 1.1 5.4 0.5 45.7 1.3 18.6 1.0
总计 Total 140.3 6.6 130.4 12.3 206.4 6.9 159.2 8.6

表3

长江口邻近海域2012年6-10月大型底栖动物多样性"

最大值
Max.
最小值
Min.
平均值±标准误
Mean ± SE
d 6月 June 6.57 1.67 3.44 ± 0.42
8月 August 5.52 1.24 3.60 ± 0.37
10月 October 5.63 1.82 4.16 ± 0.31
H' 6月 June 4.33 1.79 2.94 ± 0.23
8月 August 4.01 1.37 3.03 ± 0.22
10月 October 4.15 1.59 3.29 ± 0.21
J' 6月 June 0.98 0.55 0.86 ± 0.03
8月 August 1.00 0.72 0.90 ± 0.02
10月 October 1.00 0.51 0.86 ± 0.03

表4

长江口不同海域大型底栖动物多样性"

最大值
Max.
最小值
Min.
平均值±标准误
Mean ± SE
d 近海 Inshore 5.71 1.24 3.52 ± 0.36
远海 Offshore 6.57 1.67 3.89 ± 0.26
H' 近海 Inshore 4.15 1.37 2.91 ± 0.22
远海 Offshore 4.33 1.59 3.21 ± 0.15
J' 近海 Inshore 1.00 0.51 0.83 ± 0.03
远海 Offshore 1.00 0.69 0.90 ± 0.02

图4

长江口邻近海域大型底栖动物的等级聚类(a, c, e)和非参数多维标度排序(b, d, f)"

图5

长江口邻近海域2012年6-10月大型底栖动物丰度生物量比较曲线"

图6

长江口不同海域大型底栖动物丰度生物量比较曲线"

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