生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (8): 948-956.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016002

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海南岛维管植物物种多样性的现状

陈玉凯1, 2, 杨小波1, *(), 李东海1, 龙文兴1   

  1. 1 海南大学热带作物种质资源保护与开发利用教育部重点实验室, 海口 570228
    2 海南师范大学生命科学学院热带动植物生态学省部共建教育部重点实验室, 海口 571158
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-03 接受日期:2016-05-25 出版日期:2016-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 杨小波 E-mail:yanfengxb@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31460120)和海南省重点科技计划项目(080801)

Status of vascular plant species on Hainan Island

Yukai Chen1, 2, Xiaobo Yang1, *(), Donghai Li1, Wenxing Long1   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Protection and Development Utilization of Tropical Crop Germplasm Resources of Ministry of Education, Hainan University, Haikou 570228
    2 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Tropical Plant and Animal Ecology, College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158
  • Received:2016-01-03 Accepted:2016-05-25 Online:2016-08-20
  • Contact: Yang Xiaobo E-mail:yanfengxb@163.com

热带岛屿的植物多样性一直是全球生物多样性保护的重点和热点。海南岛地处热带北缘, 是中国的第二大岛屿, 具有丰富的植物多样性。经过近几十年的考察研究, 关于海南岛的植物物种数量出现了多个版本。本文通过文献梳理和野外考证的方法进行了全面的植物多样性调查, 以确定其维管植物种数。结果表明: 截止到2015年12月, 海南岛记录并能考证实物或标本的维管植物共有6,036种, 包括野生种4,579种(含特有植物483种和珍稀濒危植物512种)、外来逸生及归化植物163种(含外来入侵种57种)、外来引种的纯栽培植物1,294种。自1964-1977年《海南植物志》出版至今, 新增野生及引种的栽培植物所占的比例均较大, 分别占海南岛野生和栽培植物总种数的35.9%和75.9%。本文还对其中1,220种的拉丁学名进行了异名处理等的订正。

关键词: 植物区系, 珍稀濒危植物, 特有植物, 归化植物, 入侵植物, 引种植物

Maintaining plant diversity on tropical islands is a priority for biodiversity conservation. Hainan Island, located in the northern tropics, is the second largest island in China with high plant diversity. Several updated plant lists of local flora have been published after decades of field investigations. In this paper, we investigated the plant diversity on Hainan Island by conducting extensive field surveys and a literature review. Results indicated that, as of December 2015, there were 6,036 vascular plants recorded on Hainan Island with voucher specimens or practical materials. Among these species, 1,220 species were revised as synonymously, 4,579 species were wild (including 483 endemic and 512 rare and endangered species), 163 were naturalized species (including 57 invasive species) and 1,294 species were cultivated species. Since the publication of Flora Hainanica in 1964-1977, a large proportion of newly recorded species were mainly wild or introduced species, and accounted for 35.9% and 75.9% of their corresponding totals, respectively.

Key words: flora, rare and endangered plants, endemic plants, naturalized plants, invasive plants, introduced plants

图1

海南岛植物多样性调查的主要样地分布图"

表1

海南岛植物物种数排在前10位的优势科、属情况"

科名 Family 种数 No. of species 分布类型 Areal type 属名 Genus 种数 No. of species 分布类型 Areal type
兰科 Orchidaceae 298 世界广布 Cosmopolitan 冬青属 Ilex 42 泛热带分布 Pantropic
禾本科 Poaceae 290 世界广布 Cosmopolitan 耳草属 Hedyotis 42 泛热带分布 Pantropic
豆科 Fabaceae 222 世界广布 Cosmopolitan 榕属 Ficus 40 泛热带分布 Pantropic
茜草科 Rubiaceae 208 世界广布 Cosmopolitan 蒲桃属 Syzygium 39 旧世界热带
Old World Tropics
莎草科 Cyperaceae 181 世界广布 Cosmopolitan 飘拂草属 Fimbristylis 35 泛热带分布 Pantropic
大戟科 Euphorbiaceae 159 泛热带分布 Pantropic 莎草属 Cyperus 33 世界广布 Cosmopolitan
菊科 Asteraceae 133 世界广布 Cosmopolitan 紫金牛属 Ardisia 31 泛热带分布 Pantropic
樟科 Lauraceae 108 泛热带分布 Pantropic 柯属 Lithocarpus 29 东亚和北美洲间断分布 Eastern Asian and Northern American disjunction
壳斗科 Fagaceae 75 北温带和南温带间断分布 North Temperate & South Temperate disjuncted 山矾属 Symplocos 26 泛热带分布
Pantropic
爵床科 Acanthaceae 73 泛热带分布 Pantropic 簕竹属 Bambusa 24 泛热带分布 Pantropic
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