生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (4): 421-430.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015300

所属专题: 中国西南干旱河谷的植物多样性

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

雅砻江和大渡河干旱河谷植被物种多样性比较:气候、地形与空间的影响

韩杰1, 沈泽昊1, *(), 石松林2, 3, 彭培好2   

  1. 1 北京大学城市与环境学院生态学系, 地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京 100871。
    2 成都理工大学旅游与城乡规划学院, 成都 610058。
    3 中国科学院生态环境研究中心区域与城市生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-01 接受日期:2016-02-02 出版日期:2016-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 沈泽昊 E-mail:shzh@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(41371190)和交通运输部西部计划项目(2008 318 799 17)

Comparison of plant species diversity and composition in the dry valleys of Yalong River and Dadu River: evaluating the effects of climate, topography and space

Jie Han1, Zehao Shen1, *(), Songlin Shi2, 3, Peihao Peng2   

  1. 1 Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871.
    2 College of Tourism and Urban-rural Planning, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610058.
    3 State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100875
  • Received:2015-11-01 Accepted:2016-02-02 Online:2016-04-20
  • Contact: Shen Zehao E-mail:shzh@urban.pku.edu.cn

干旱河谷植被是我国西南横断山区的一类特殊的隐域性生态系统, 影响不同河谷之间植物群落差异的因素与作用大小尚不清楚。本研究调查了四川省雅砻江和大渡河流域干旱河谷段植被组成, 并比较了两个地区在植物多样性上的差别。结果表明: (1)影响两个地区植被类型的主要因素不同, 雅砻江干旱河谷植被主要受海拔和地形(坡度和坡向)影响, 大渡河干旱河谷植被主要受年平均降水量影响。(2)雅砻江和大渡河干旱河谷植物物种丰富度均随着年均温升高而降低。(3)坡向由北至南, 雅砻江干旱河谷灌木、草本物种丰富度减小, 而大渡河干旱河谷灌木、草本丰富度增加。(4)坡度越大, 雅砻江和大渡河干旱河谷灌木的丰富度越高。(5)雅砻江、大渡河干旱河谷植物β多样性受环境距离影响大, 受地理距离影响小。两条江植被间地理隔离效应约为地理距离产生差异的5倍。本研究弥补了干旱河谷研究中对于雅砻江和大渡河干旱河谷植物多样性研究的空白, 为相关区域植被保护提供了参考信息, 同时还为定量估计地理隔离效应对区域间生物多样性差异的影响提供了可行方法。

关键词: 干旱河谷, 植物多样性, 植被类型, 地理隔离

The vegetation of dry valleys is a suit of unique azonal ecosystems embedded in the Hengduan Mountains region of Southwest China, with the difference of plant communities between the valleys and the causal factors still elusive. In this study, we investigated the dry valleys of the Yalong River and the Dadu River and compared plant diversity. Different factors were found to impact the vegetation types between the two rivers. Elevation and topography (slope and aspect) impacted vegetation types of the Yalong River and mean annual precipitation impacted the Dadu River. Plant richness in the valleys of the two rivers decreased with greater mean annual temperature. From a north to south aspect, plant richness of the dry valley communities decreased in the Yalong River, while increased in the Dadu River. Richness of shrubs in both the Yalong River and the Dadu River were greater at increased slopes. The β diversity of plant community in the dry valleys of the Yalong River and the Dadu River was affected more by environmental than geographical distance. The effect of geographical isolation on the two rivers was approximately 5 times greater than the effect of geographical distance. This research fills the knowledge gap about plant diversity of dry valleys vegetation in the Yalong River and the Dadu River, and reference information for vegetation conservation in the dry valleys of the two rivers. In addition, it provides a practical method for the quantitative assessment of geographical isolation effect on regional biodiversity difference.

Key words: dry valley, plant diversity, vegetation types, geographical isolation

图1

雅砻江和大渡河干旱河谷的气候条件和调查样带分布"

图2

雅砻江和大渡河干旱河谷植物种-面积曲线"

表1

雅砻江和大渡河干旱河谷植物丰富度的混合效应模型模拟结果"

年均温
Mean annual temperature
坡向
Aspect
坡度
Slope
河流解释
River explanation
限制性最大似然估计
REML criterion
灌木层
Shrub layer
雅砻江 The Yalong River -0.202** -0.747** 0.020* 92.10% 76.1
大渡河 The Dadu River -0.432** 1.005** 0.016*
草本层
Herb layer
雅砻江 The Yalong River -0.537** -0.687** - 92.20% 104.9
大渡河 The Dadu River -0.969** 1.451** -

表2

雅砻江和大渡河干旱河谷植物群落类型特征(平均值±标准差)"

群落类型 Community type 河流
River
海拔
Elevation (m)
灌木密度
Shrub density (/100 m2)
草本密度
Herb density (/100 m2)
植被型
Vegetation type
类型A
Type A
大渡河
The Dadu River
1,200 9 ± 4 41 ± 10 亚热带针阔叶混交林Coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest in subtropical
类型B
Type B
大渡河-雅砻江
The Dadu River-the Yalong River
1,400 3 ± 1 19 ± 3 暖性落叶阔叶灌丛 Warm deciduous broadleaved shrub
类型C
Type C
雅砻江
The Yalong River
2,600 4 ± 2 21 ± 4 暖性落叶阔叶灌丛 Warm deciduous broadleaved shrub
类型D
Type D
雅砻江
The Yalong River
2,700 6 ± 3 26 ± 6 暖性落叶阔叶灌丛 Warm deciduous broadleaved shrub
类型E
Type E
雅砻江
The Yalong River
2,500 4 ± 1 25 ± 7 暖性落叶阔叶灌丛 Warm deciduous broadleaved shrub

图3

雅砻江和大渡河干旱河谷植物TWINSPAN群落分类图。(+)表示与分类聚组正相关,(-)表示与分类聚组负相关。"

图4

雅砻江和大渡河干旱河谷植物群落的CCA排序。群落类型A、B、C、D、E含义同图3。"

图5

雅砻江和大渡河干旱河谷地理隔离效应曲线。相关系数指的是Jaccard相似性系数矩阵与地理距离矩阵的相关系数。"

表3

雅砻江和大渡河干旱河谷植物物种构成相似性Mantel检验及偏Mantel检验"

距离矩阵 Distance matrices R P
环境 Environmental -0.727 0.001
环境|地理距离 Environmental | Geographical distance -0.543 0.001
环境|5倍地理距离 Environments |
5 × Geographical distance
-0.401 0.002
地理距离 Geographical distance -0.576 0.001
地理距离|环境 Geographical distance | Environments -0.013 0.513
5 ×地理距离|环境 5 × Geographical distance | Environments -0.451 0.001
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