生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (2): 174-182.doi: 10.17520/biods.2014243

• • 上一篇    下一篇

鼎湖山南亚热带常绿阔叶林不同成熟度群落特征的比较

练琚愉1, 陈灿1, 2, 黄忠良1, *(), 曹洪麟1, 叶万辉1   

  1. 1.中国科学院退化生态系统植被恢复与管理重点实验室, 中国科学院华南植物园, 广州 510650
    2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2014-11-21 接受日期:2015-03-18 出版日期:2015-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 黄忠良 E-mail:huangzl@scbg.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(41371078, 31100312)和中国森林生物多样性监测网络建设项目

Community composition and stand age in a subtropical forest, southern China

Juyu Lian1, Can Chen1, 2, Zhongliang Huang1, *(), Honglin Cao1, Wanhui Ye1   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2014-11-21 Accepted:2015-03-18 Online:2015-03-20
  • Contact: Huang Zhongliang E-mail:huangzl@scbg.ac.cn

研究不同成熟度群落物种的共存状态, 了解群落演替过程中结构的动态变化, 对揭示森林不同发育时期的群落构建机制具有重要意义。本研究基于鼎湖山南亚热带常绿阔叶林20 ha固定监测样地(以下简称鼎湖山大样地) 2010年植被调查的数据, 根据径级与林龄将鼎湖山大样地划分为成熟林和过熟林两个斑块, 对其群落物种组成、区系特征及径级结构进行了初步的比较。研究发现: (1)成熟林和过熟林种类组成的群落相似性系数高、物种多样性指数相近, 以及锥栗(Castanopsis chinensis)重要值相似, 但物种数、密度、总胸高断面积、物种重要值等有所不同; (2)热带区系成分在两个斑块均占优势, 但以过熟林的比例较高; (3)两个斑块虽然所有活立木径级结构分布均呈倒“J”型, 但在同径级个体群重要值比较中, 成熟林中径级个体群重要值较高, 而过熟林则是大径级个体群重要值较高。由此可见, 鼎湖山大样地的成熟林与过熟林虽属于同一类群落的演替顶极阶段, 但群落结构上却存在差异, 推测在林窗作用下不同发育时期的群落存在不同的构建过程。

关键词: 鼎湖山大样地, 物种组成, 群落结构, 群落构建, 林窗

Studying species coexistence and successional dynamics of varying stand ages is important to understanding the mechanisms of community assembly. In this study, we divided a 20 ha subtropical forest plot in southern China into two groups, mature and old (over-mature), according to tree size and historical records. Species compositions, floristic characteristics and tree size distribution between the groups were compared. Results showed that species composition of the two groups were similar with comparable diversity indices but different species richness, individual densities, total basal area and importance value (IV) of species. As for the floristic composition, there were about 90% genera of tropical species in both groups, but the genera had a higher proportion in the old than in the mature forest. Both groups had “J” shaped tree size distributions but the mature forest had higher IV in the middle size class while the old forest was highest in large size class. In conclusion, both the mature and old forests were in climax stages but had different community structures, which suggests that there were different assembly processes during development stages in the subtropical forest community.

Key words: Dinghushan plot, species composition, community structure, community assembly, forest gap

图1

鼎湖山大样地锥栗(左图)和马尾松(右图)胸径≥ 1 cm的个体空间分布图。圆点大小按同等比例表征个体胸径。"

图2

鼎湖山大样地成熟林(蓝线以左)和过熟林(蓝线以右)样地示意图。T1到T5不同的颜色代表小样方的相对年龄, T1最小, T5最大。"

表1

鼎湖山大样地成熟林和过熟林概况"

类型
Type
面积
Area (ha)
样方数
No. of subplots
株数
No. of individuals
植株密度
Density (ind./subplot)
物种数
No. of species
群落相似性系数
Chao-Jaccard/Chao-Sorenson
成熟林 Mature forest 11.8 296 32,239 108.9 ± 40.7 141 99.07%
99.54%
过熟林 Old forest 8.2 204 27,803 136.3 ± 52.4 157

表2

鼎湖山大样地成熟林重要值前十的物种与过熟林中的比较"

物种名
Species
科名
Family
密度
Density (ind./ha)
胸高断面积
Basal area (m²/ha)
重要值/排名
Importance value/Ranking
MF OF MF OF MF OF
锥栗 Castanopsis chinensis 壳斗科 Fagaceae 151.86 34.76 9.61 7.50 14.43/① 11.00/①
荷木 Schima superba 山茶科 Theaceae 137.20 33.54 4.93 2.20 8.74/② 3.94/⑥
黄杞 Engelhardtia roxburghiana 胡桃科 Juglandaceae 41.53 13.29 4.30 0.95 6.32/③ 1.75
光叶山黄皮 Aidia canthioides 茜草科 Rubiaceae 325.85 493.90 0.20 0.41 5.53/④ 6.47/②
红皮紫棱 Craibiodendron scleranthum 杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 134.15 32.93 1.86 0.46 4.92/⑤ 1.58
黄果厚壳桂 Cryptocarya concinna 樟科 Lauraceae 273.81 73.17 0.14 0.06 4.69/⑥ 1.70
厚壳桂 Cryptocarya chinensis 樟科 Lauraceae 148.47 63.05 1.07 1.18 4.29/⑦ 3.00/⑨
红车 Syzygium rehderianum 桃金娘科 Myrtaceae 167.71 380.98 0.53 1.23 3.68/⑧ 6.47/③
柏拉木 Blastus cochinchinensis 野牡丹科 Melastomataceae 163.31 121.95 0.05 0.04 2.78/⑨ 2.15
罗伞树 Ardisia quinquegona 紫金牛科 Myrsinaceae 102.46 233.78 0.03 0.10 2.24/⑩ 3.49/⑧
小计 Total of above 1,646.35 1,481.35 22.72 14.13 57.62 41.55
其他 Others 1,085.76 1,909.26 5.7 10.87 42.38 58.45
总计 Total 2,732.12 3,390.61 28.4 25.0 100 100

表3

鼎湖山大样地成熟林和过熟林物种多样性指数(mean ± SD)"

类型
Type
Shannon-Wiener指数Shannon-Wiener index Simpson指数
Simpson index
Pielou均匀度指数
Pielou evenness index
成熟林 Mature forest 2.63 ± 0.28 0.89 ± 0.05 0.83 ± 0.07
过熟林 Old forest 2.71 ± 0.29 0.89 ± 0.05 0.81 ± 0.06

表4

成熟林和过熟林木本植物群落种子植物属的分布区类型统计"

分布区类型
Distribution area type
成熟林 Mature forest 过熟林 Old forest
属数
No. of genera
比率
Percentage (%)
属数
No. of genera
比率
Percentage (%)
2 泛热带分布 Pantropic 31 32.63 34 35.05
3 热带亚洲和热带美洲间断分布 Tropical Asia and Tropical America disjuncted 5 5.26 4 4.12
4 旧世界热带分布 Old World Tropic 15 15.79 15 15.46
5 热带亚洲至热带大洋洲分布 Tropical Asia and Tropical Australasia 6 6.32 5 5.15
6 热带亚洲至热带非洲分布 Tropical Asia to Tropical Africa 7 7.37 6 6.19
7 热带亚洲分布 Tropical Asia 21 22.11 25 25.77
热带成分(分布型2-7) Tropical elements 85 89.47 89 91.75
8 北温带分布 North Temperate 3 3.16 1 1.03
9 东亚和北美洲间断分布 East Asia and North America disjuncted 5 5.26 6 6.19
14 东亚分布 East Asia 2 2.11 1 1.03
温带成分(分布型8-14) Temperate elements 10 10.53 8 8.25
合计 Total 95 100.00 97 100.00

图3

鼎湖山大样地成熟林(a)和过熟林(b)所有木本植物径级结构分布"

图4

鼎湖山大样地成熟林和过熟林同径级个体群重要值随径级结构的分布"

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