To study the diversity of butterfly community, from April 2016 to October 2018, a butterfly diversity survey was conducted along five fixed-sample transects of 2,000 m each in different habitats within the Qiyunshan National Nature Reserve of Jiangxi Province. Transects were sampled six times per year and 18 times in total. A total of 6,946 butterflies was recorded, belonging to 189 species of 106 genera under 5 families, of which the Oriental was dominant group (183 species, 96.8%). The family Nymphalidae had the largest number of species (81 species, 42.9%) with a high richness index (R = 8.42), diversity index (H′= 3.21), and dominance index (D = 0.60), suggesting this was the dominant group. The number of butterflies in Qiyunshan National Nature Reserve gradually increased from April to May, stayed relatively stable from June to July, and remained until October. From April to October, the number of butterfly species was basically stable, with a high diversity index. However, there were significant differences in the species composition and distribution of butterflies across various habitats in the protected area. The Tongjiang transect of the mixed forest had the greatest number of butterfly species (126 species, 66.7%), the highest species richness index (R = 16.51), and the highest overall abundance (n = 1,945, 28.2%). In the evergreen broad-leaved forest of the Shangshibalei transect, a smaller abundance of butterflies was observed (n = 905, 13.0%), but there were more butterfly species (103 species, 54.5%), with a higher diversity index (H′= 3.93) and dominance index (D = 0.85). The number of butterfly species in the farmland/orchard habitat of the Sanjiaotan transect was relatively small (97 species, 51.3%), likely due to its simple habitat and high intensity of human disturbance. Our results show that the composition of butterfly fauna of Qiyunshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province is dominated by species in the Oriental realm. The diversity of butterfly communities has a clear correlation with the type of habitat. Intensity of human activities, such as seasonal farming, heavy use of herbicides and pesticides, and massive cutting of host plants, threatens the diversity of butterflies and the stability of butterfly community structure.