In order to strengthen the protection and management of rare and endangered plants in the Luoxiao Mountains, we made extensive investigations on the species composition, population size, and survival status of the rare and endangered plants based on vegetation and floristic surveys. The results are as follows: (1) A total of 279 rare and endangered plant species from 142 genera and 59 families were recorded in the Luoxiao Mountains. Among them, 17 species were included in the IUCN Red List, i.e. 2 critical species (CR), 3 endangered species (EN), and 12 vulnerable species (VU); and 105 species were included in the China Biodiversity Red List: Higher Plants, i.e. 9 critical species, 33 endangered species, 63 vulnerable species; 257 species in the National Key Protected Wild Plants List, i.e. Grade I 8 species, i.e. Ginkgo biloba, Abies beshanensis var. ziyuanensis, Taxus wallichiana var. mairei, Brasenia schreberi, Bretschneidera sinensis, Dendrobium hancockii, D. officinale, and D. moniliforme, and Grade II 249 species; 71 species were listed in Appendix II of CITES. (2) The Luoxiao Mountains are composed of five medium-sized mountains, and across these mountains, the number of rare and endangered plants changed from north to south, indicating that their survival status was closely related to the species richness and the preservation of vegetation and flora in the areas. Mt. Mufu had 147 species, Mt. Jiuling 138 species, Mt. Wugong 133 species, Mt. Wanyang 227 species, and Mt. Zhuguang 192 species. (3) According to the species composition of rare and endangered plants, there were a large number of ancient, relict and endemic taxa, which are affected by climate and geographical environment, including 19 monotypic genera and 129 species endemic to China. According to the survival status, and distribution of rare and endangered species, this paper puts forward some protection measures, such as community monitoring or appropriate artificial intervention, etc.