生物多样性 ›› 2004, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (4): 456-465.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004056

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

土壤管理措施及环境因素对土壤微生物多样性影响研究进展

钟文辉1,2*,蔡祖聪1   

  1. 1 (中国科学院南京土壤研究所土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室,南京210008)
    2 (南京师范大学化学与环境科学学院,南京 210097)
  • 收稿日期:2003-12-02 修回日期:2004-04-30 出版日期:2004-07-20 发布日期:2004-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 钟文辉

Effect of soil management practices and environmental factors on soil microbial diversity: a review

ZHONG Wen-Hui1,2*, CAI Zu-Cong1   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008
    2 College of Chemistry and Enivionmental Sciences,Nanjing Normal University,Nanjing 210097
  • Received:2003-12-02 Revised:2004-04-30 Online:2004-07-20 Published:2004-07-20
  • Contact: ZHONG Wen-Hui

摘要: 本文综述了土壤管理措施及环境因素对土壤微生物多样性影响的研究进展,并介绍了土壤微生物多样性的研究方法。土壤微生物多样性包括微生物物种多样性、遗传多样性和生态多样性。传统上,土壤微生物群落的分析依赖于培养技术,但使用该技术只能培养和分离出一小部分土壤微生物群落。现在国际上普遍使用Biolog分析、磷脂脂肪酸(PLFA)分析和核酸分析等多种现代技术研究和表征土壤微生物多样性。土壤微生物多样性受土壤管理措施和多种环境因素的影响。农药可能使土壤微生物多样性减少或改变其结构和功能;施有机肥有利于维持土壤微生物的多样性及活性;但在施用无机肥的影响上目前的报道有矛盾之处。农业土壤减少耕作可能增加微生物多样性和生物量;轮作可能比单一栽培耕作更有利于维持土壤微生物的多样性及活性。土壤微生物多样性也受土壤有机质、植被、季节变化等因素的影响,且通常遭受干旱、过度放牧、营养缺乏等的胁迫作用。

关键词: 多样性指数, 黑河流域中游地区, 啮齿动物, 群落结构

AbstractIn this paper, the effect of soil management practices and environmental factors on soil microbial diversity are reviewed and the methods for studying soil microbial diversity are briefly introduced. Soil microbial diversity includes microbial species diversity, genetic diversity and ecological diversity. Culturing techniques using a variety of culture media are used traditionally to analyze soil microbial communities, but only a small fraction of soil microbial community has been cultured and isolated. Recently several modern methods including Biolog analysis, phospholipid fatty acid analysis and nucleic acid-based analysis have been utilized internationally to study and characterize soil microbial diversity. Soil microbial diversity is affected by many factors including management practices. Application of pesticides usually causes declines in soil microbial diversity or changes in its structure and function. Organic manures are commonly reported to maintain soil microbial diversity and activities, but reports on the effects of inorganic fertilizers have been contradictory. Generally speaking, microbial diversity is higher and biomass is larger in agricultural soils cultivated with reduced tillage and crop rotation than in those soils cultivated with conservation tillage and monoculture. Soil microbial diversity may also be influenced by soil organic matter, vegetation, seasonal change, and usually suffer from stresses such as drought, overgrazing, and nutrient deficiencies.

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