生物多样性 ›› 2008, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (1): 68-74.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.07089

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

旅游活动对卧龙自然保护区社区居民的经济影响

刘洋1,2, 吕一河2,*()   

  1. 1 中国科学院城市环境研究所, 厦门 361003
    2 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
  • 收稿日期:2007-03-20 接受日期:2007-09-05 出版日期:2008-01-27 发布日期:2008-01-27
  • 通讯作者: 吕一河
  • 作者简介:*E-mail:lyh@rcees.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(40621061);国家自然科学基金(30300052)

The economic impact of tourism on local residents in Wolong Nature Reserve

Yang Liu1,2, Yihe Lü2,*()   

  1. 1 Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361003
    2 State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085
  • Received:2007-03-20 Accepted:2007-09-05 Online:2008-01-27 Published:2008-01-27
  • Contact: Yihe Lü

摘要:

旅游活动是提高自然保护区社区居民收入、缓解保护区与社区矛盾、促进生物多样性保护的重要途径之一。为评价旅游活动对自然保护区社区经济提升的现实效果, 以卧龙自然保护区为案例, 采用问卷调查的方法, 通过分析保护区内旅游从业人员的经济收入、就业机会以及收入分配等, 从一定程度上揭示旅游活动对该保护区社区居民的直接经济影响。结果表明, 生态旅游可以给保护区的部分居民带来一定的经济收入, 但这部分收入总量较低; 保护区内的居民多从事一些较简单的旅游相关活动, 对技能要求较高的活动则大多由来自保护区外的人员从事; 旅游活动带来的经济收入不论是在当地相关从业人员之间还是在当地人与来自保护区外的人员之间的分配都表现出了一定的不公平性, 居住位置、启动资金和技术技能是造成这种不公平现象的主要原因。依据以上调查及分析结果, 论文提出了开发旅游项目、建立培训机制、设立专项基金以及逐步移民等相应对策。

关键词: 生态旅游, 自然保护区, 经济影响, 问卷调查

Abstract

Theoretically, tourism can generate economic benefits for local residents, while whether the benefits can come true in reality is a crucial issue. To obtain the actual direct economic impact that tourism have on local residents, a questionnaire survey was conducted in Wolong Nature Reserve (WNR). Total income generated by tourism, employment opportunities for local participants, and income distributions were included in the questionnaire. The results showed that there’s a considerable gap between actual effects and theoretical expectations from tourism in WNR: the total income generated by tourism was small; the employment opportunities were limited; and the income was unevenly distributed among local participants as well as among local people and outsiders. Measures, including developing new tourism items, establishing educational projects, providing special funds, and implementing a relocation policy, were proposed to improve the effectiveness of tourism as integrated tool for development and conservation.

Key words: ecotourism, nature reserve, economic impact, questionnaire survey